tm2027068-1_s3 - none - 4.7550654s
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 11, 2020
Registration Statement No. 333-      
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
82-2082553
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
500 Unicorn Park
Woburn MA 01801
(781) 222-9600
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
Philip Astley-Sparke
Chief Executive Officer
Replimune Group, Inc.
500 Unicorn Park
Woburn MA 01801
(781) 222-9600
(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)
With copies to:
Timothy J. Corbett
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
One Federal Street
Boston, MA 02110
(617) 341-7700
From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement
(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☒

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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered(1)
Amount to be
Registered(2)(3)
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit(2)(3)
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price(1)
Amount of
Registration
Fee
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share
(2)
Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share
(2)
Debt Securities
(2)
Warrants
(2)
Units
(2)
Total: $ 350,000,000 $ 45,430(4)
(1)
Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, together or as units with other securities registered hereunder.
(2)
Such information is not required to be included pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).
(3)
We are registering hereunder such indeterminate number of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price of $350,000,000, which may be offered by us from time to time in unspecified numbers and at indeterminate prices, and as may be issued upon conversion, exercise, redemption, repurchase or exchange of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $350,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the securities being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the securities being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(4)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act, based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price. The $350,000,000 of securities registered hereunder includes $38,930,147.70 of securities (the “Unsold Securities”) registered pursuant to Registration Statement No. 333-233147 we initially filed on August 8, 2019 and that was declared effective on August 15, 2019 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, $4,718.33 of filing fees that we previously paid in connection with the Unsold Securities, calculated under Rule 457(o), will continue to be applied to the Unsold Securities. Accordingly, a filing fee of $40,711.67 is paid herewith. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this Registration Statement.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), may determine.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains:

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, or the Sales Agreement.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered by us pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares of our common stock under the Sales Agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the shares of our common stock to be issued and sold under the Sales Agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $350,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, any portion of the $75,000,000 of common stock included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares of common stock are sold under the Sales Agreement, the full $350,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings by us pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.
 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated August 11, 2020
Prospectus
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_replimune-4c.jpg]
Up to $350,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
We may offer and sell from time to time our shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants and debt securities, as well as units that include any combination of the foregoing securities. We may sell any combination of these securities in one or more offerings with an aggregate offering price of up to $350,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific terms of the particular offering together with this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in any securities that we may offer. The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell securities unless accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “REPL.” On August 10, 2020, the closing price of our common stock was $24.51.
Investing in our securities involves significant risks. We strongly recommend that you read carefully the risks we describe in this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement, as well as the risk factors that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus from our filings made with the Securities and Exchange Commission. See “Risk Factors” on page 5 of this prospectus.
We may sell the securities directly or to or through underwriters or dealers, and also to other purchasers or through agents. The names of any underwriters or agents that are included in a sale of securities to you, and any applicable commissions or discounts, will be stated in an accompanying prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is           2020.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities, as well as units that include any combination of the foregoing securities, in one or more offerings from time to time. The maximum aggregate amount of the securities that we may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part is limited to $350 million. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.
Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will include more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. Before buying any of the securities being offered, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the additional information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by an additional prospectus or prospectus supplement.
You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or the time of any sale of a security.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
This prospectus includes summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to (i) “Replimune,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Replimune Group, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries and (ii) a year are references to the applicable calendar year and not our fiscal year.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights selected information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information under the caption “Risk Factors” herein and the applicable prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Our Company
General
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company committed to applying our leading expertise in the field of oncolytic immunotherapy to transform the lives of cancer patients. We use our proprietary Immulytic platform to design and develop product candidates that are intended to maximally activate the immune system against cancer.
Oncolytic immunotherapy, which we intend to establish as the second cornerstone of immune-based cancer treatment, is an emerging class of immuno-oncology therapy, alongside checkpoint blockade, that exploits the ability of certain viruses to selectively replicate in and directly kill tumors, as well as induce a potent, patient-specific, anti-tumor immune response. Such oncolytic, or “cancer killing,” viruses have the potential to generate an immune response targeted to an individual patient’s particular set of tumor antigens, including neo-antigens that are uniquely present in tumors. Our product candidates incorporate multiple mechanisms of action into a practical “off-the-shelf” approach that is intended to maximize the immune response against a patient’s cancer and to offer significant advantages over personalized vaccine approaches. We believe that the bundling of multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer into single therapies will simplify the development path of our product candidates, while also improving patient outcomes at a lower cost to the healthcare system than the use of multiple different drugs.
The foundation of our Immulytic platform consists of a proprietary, engineered strain of herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, that has been “armed” with a fusogenic glycoprotein intended to substantially increase anti-tumor activity. Our Immulytic platform enables us to incorporate various genes into HSV-1 that are intended to further augment the inherent properties of HSV-1 in order to both directly destroy tumor cells and induce an anti-tumor immune response. We currently have three product candidates in our development pipeline, RP1, our lead product candidate, and additionally RP2 and RP3.
We are currently conducting a number of clinical trials of RP1, both as a monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, with a focus on immune-responsive tumors. We are conducting a randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial of RP1 in approximately 240 patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, or CSCC, RP1’s lead indication. This registration-directed clinical trial is evaluating RP1 in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Regeneron, versus cemiplimab alone. Regeneron has granted to us a non-exclusive royalty-free license to cemiplimab for use in this trial, is funding one-half of the clinical trial costs, and is supplying cemiplimab at no cost to us. If compelling clinical data are generated demonstrating the benefits of the combined treatment in this clinical trial, we believe the data from this Phase 2 clinical trial could support a filing with regulatory authorities for marketing approval. Recruitment into this Phase 2 clinical trial is expected to take approximately eighteen to twenty-four months and we expect the primary data readout from the clinical trial in 2022. We have also opened for enrollment a Phase 1b clinical trial of single agent RP1 in solid organ transplant recipients with CSCC, which we believe to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients). We intend to enroll approximately 30 patients in this clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant recipients with recurrent CSCC.
We have entered into a collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS, under which it has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and is supplying at no cost, its anti-PD-1 therapy, nivolumab,
 
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for use in combination with RP1 in a multi-cohort clinical trial. We are currently enrolling a 125-patient extension cohort of RP1 combined with nivolumab in anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma. We initiated this cohort after completing enrollment in a prior Phase 2 cohort in the same clinical trial of approximately 30 patients with melanoma. The data generated in the melanoma cohort demonstrated that RP1 combined with nivolumab has the potential to treat anti-PD-1 refractory melanoma. We also believe this cohort to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients).
We continue to enroll patients in other Phase 2 cohorts of approximately 30 patients each, testing RP1 in combination with nivolumab in non-melanoma skin cancers and microsatellite instability high, or MSI-H/ dMMR, tumors under our collaboration with BMS. Due in part to COVID-19 related disruptions, we expect that the non-melanoma skin cancer cohort to be fully accrued by the end of 2020. Similarly, it is likely that accumulating sufficient data to inform a decision as to whether to pursue MSI-H/dMMR tumors into registration-directed development will be delayed into 2021. In addition, as a result of changes in the competitive landscape, we recently announced our intention to replace a 30 patient bladder cancer cohort with a cohort of patients with anti-PD-1 refractory non-small cell lung cancer. We intend to initiate enrollment into this cohort later this year.
We are also developing additional product candidates, RP2 and RP3, that have been further engineered to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and are intended to address additional tumor types. In addition to the expression of GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF, RP2 has been engineered to express an antibody-like molecule intended to block the activity of CTLA-4, a protein that inhibits the immune response to tumors. RP3 has been engineered with the intent to further stimulate an anti-tumor response through activation of the immune co-stimulatory pathways through expression of the ligands for CD40 and 4-1BB.
We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 in October 2019. The Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 is also being conducted as a collaboration with BMS, under which BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and will supply at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP2. We expect to release initial safety and efficacy data from this Phase 1 clinical trial in the second half of 2020. Based on the data generated to date, we have decided to amend the protocol to allow for an expansion of the second part of this clinical trial (of RP2 combined with nivolumab) from 12 to 30 patients.
We intend to file an Investigational New Drug application, or IND, and/or foreign equivalents for RP3 and, assuming regulatory clearance, enter clinical development during 2020. IND and/or foreign equivalent enabling studies of RP3 are currently underway.
Recent Developments
During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, we announced interim data from the Phase 2 part of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of RP1 in which we are assessing the safety and efficacy of RP1 in combination with nivolumab in cohorts of approximately 30 patients. We announced that four of seven evaluable CSCC patients in the 30-patient non-melanoma skin cancer cohort have ongoing complete responses and six of the seven evaluable patients have either an ongoing complete response or an ongoing partial response. We continue to believe this interim data demonstrates that RP1 in combination with nivolumab is well-tolerated, demonstrates immune activation and continues to drive deep and durable responses in patients with CSCC. Of particular note, we observed clear differentiation in the number of complete responses in patients with advanced CSCC who were treated with RP1 in combination with nivolumab as compared to the number of complete responses which we believe would be expected in patients if they were treated with nivolumab alone.
We have enrolled and treated 36 melanoma patients, including the six melanoma patients enrolled into the Phase 1 expansion cohort of RP1 combined with nivolumab. 16 patients with anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma have been treated, as have an additional 20 patients with anti-PD-1 naïve cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma (all anti-PD-1 refractory), and mucosal melanoma (anti-PD-1 naïve or refractory). Five of the 16 anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma patients at the data cut-off date met the formal definition of response, with an additional two patients remaining on treatment with the opportunity for response. Accordingly, we will observe a final response rate from this cohort of at least 31%. Four of
 
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eight anti-PD-1 naïve cutaneous melanoma patients met the formal definition of response at the data cut-off date, with an additional two patients continuing on treatment with the opportunity for response. Additionally, two of the six mucosal melanoma patients met the formal definition of response at the data cut-off date, and two of the six uveal melanoma patients are on study with the opportunity of response, with one such uveal melanoma patient demonstrating a 27.3% reduction in target disease burden as of the last CT scan in April 2020.
Corporate Information
The parent company of our group is Replimune Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation that was formed in July 2017. Prior to the corporate reorganization described below, the parent company of our group was Replimune Limited, a private company limited by shares incorporated in England and Wales (registered number 09496393), which was organized in March 2015.
In July 2017, all of the outstanding equity securities of Replimune Limited were exchanged for equity securities of Replimune Group, Inc., a newly formed Delaware corporation. As a result of the reorganization, Replimune Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Replimune Group, Inc.
Our principal executive office is located at 500 University Park, Woburn, MA 01801 and our telephone number is (781) 222-9600. Our website address is https://www.replimune.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus. Our fiscal year end is March 31.
We own various United Kingdom registered trademarks and United States federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including our company name and the “Immulytic” platform name. All other trademarks, service marks and trade names used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. These reduced reporting requirements include reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements and no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) March 31, 2024, (2) the last day of the fiscal year (a) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (b) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior September 30th, and (3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three year period. References in this prospectus to “emerging growth company” shall have the meaning ascribed to it in the JOBS Act.
An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

an exemption from the requirements to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended;

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

exemptions from the requirement to hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and to obtain stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We may take advantage of these reduced reporting requirements until such time as we cease to be an emerging growth company.
We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting
 
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requirements in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different from the information that you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Additionally, we are also a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Regulation S-K. We will remain a smaller reporting company if we have (i) less than $250 million in market value of our shares held by non-affiliates as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter or (ii) less than $100 million of annual revenues in our most recent fiscal year completed before the last business day of our second fiscal quarter and less than $700 million in market value of our shares held by non-affiliates as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the occurrence of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described above and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q on file with the SEC and any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, all of which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, contains, and any prospectus supplement may contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any information incorporated by reference herein and therein may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include, among other things:

the timing, progress, and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for RP1 or any of our other product candidates, including the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;

our ability to obtain additional funding as necessary;

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of our Biologics License Application, and filing for, and final approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of, RP1 or any of our other product candidates;

the timing, scope, or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;

our ability to develop our product candidates for use in combination with other checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti-PD-1;

our ability to develop and advance any future product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations for RP1 or our other product candidates if approved for commercial use;

the costs of operating our in-house manufacturing facility;

our estimates regarding expenses and capital requirements;

the implementation of our business model and our strategic plans for our business, RP1 and our other product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of RP1 or our other product candidates;
 
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the potential benefits of and our ability to establish or maintain future collaborations or strategic relationships;

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering RP1 and our other product candidates, claims others may make regarding rights in our intellectual property, and any potential infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any third-party intellectual property rights;

our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology;

the impact of laws and regulations;

the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, or COVID-19, as a global pandemic and related public health issues;

our ability to remediate the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting and to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;

our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

the other risks and uncertainties described under “Risk factors” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020, our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and our subsequent filings which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein. Moreover, we operate in a competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except to the extent required by applicable law. You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently expect to use the net proceeds from the securities offered hereunder, if any, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, to fund the development of RP1 through the completion of our ongoing clinical trials in RP1, to fund clinical development with RP2 and RP3 and for general corporate purposes, including working capital requirements and operating expenses. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
We may sell common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities, as well as units that include any combination of the foregoing securities, in one or more offerings from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, or both, that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities being offered.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following is a description of certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and certain provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL. The following description does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, each filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and the terms and provisions of the DGCL. For more complete information, you should carefully review our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits to our registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and which may be obtained as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our authorized capital stock consists of 150 million shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10 million shares of undesignated preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.
Common stock
Subject to any preferential rights that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock from time to time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. The holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock.
Preferred stock
Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10 million shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, as well as the number of shares constituting and the designation of any series, thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences or sinking fund terms any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. There are currently no shares of preferred stock outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
The DGCL provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of that preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.
Pre-funded Warrants
We have issued pre-funded warrants to purchase approximately 3.7 million shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share. The pre-funded warrants do not expire and may be exercised at any time after their original issuance. Under the pre-funded warrants, we may not effect the exercise of any pre-funded warrant, and a holder will not be entitled to exercise any portion of any pre-funded warrant, which, upon giving effect to such exercise, would cause (i) the aggregate number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 9.99% of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, or (ii) the combined voting power of our securities beneficially owned by the holder of the pre-funded warrant (together with its affiliates) to exceed 9.99% of the combined voting power of all of our securities then outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance
 
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with the terms of the pre-funded warrants. Any holder may increase or decrease such percentage to any other percentage upon at least 61 days’ prior notice from the holder to us, provided, however, that certain of the holders of our pre-funded warrants may only increase such percentage to 19.99%. The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants and the number of shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock and also upon any distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our stockholders. The exercise price will not be adjusted below the par value of our common stock.
Anti-takeover effects of provisions of Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws
Requirements for advance notification of stockholder meetings, nominations and proposals
Our certificate of incorporation provides that special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by or at the direction of our board of directors. Our bylaws prohibit the conduct of any business at a special meeting other than as specified in the notice for such meeting. These provisions may have the effect of deferring, delaying or discouraging hostile takeovers, or changes in control or management of our company.
Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of our board of directors or a committee of our board of directors. In order for any matter to be “properly brought” before a meeting, a stockholder will have to comply with advance notice requirements and provide us with certain information. Additionally, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled only by a vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, and not by the stockholders. Our bylaws allow the presiding officer at a meeting of the stockholders to adopt rules and regulations for the conduct of meetings which may have the effect of precluding the conduct of certain business at a meeting if the rules and regulations are not followed. These provisions may also defer, delay or discourage a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board of directors is expressly authorized to adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws.
No cumulative voting
The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless our certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our certificate of incorporation does not expressly provide for cumulative voting.
Amendments to certificate of incorporation and bylaws
The DGCL provides that, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, the affirmative vote of holders of shares constituting a majority of the votes of all shares entitled to vote may approve amendments to the certificate of incorporation.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the affirmative vote of holders of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of capital stock, voting together as a single class, and entitled to vote in the election of directors will be required to amend, alter, change or repeal certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. This requirement of a supermajority vote to approve amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could enable a minority of our stockholders to exercise veto power over such amendments.
Forum selection clause
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors or officers or other employees to us or our stockholders;
 
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(iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that any person or entity that acquires any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions described above.
Staggered board
Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board of directors is divided into three classes of directors, with the directors in each class serving staggered three-year terms and with the number of directors in each class to be as nearly equal as possible.
Stockholder action by written consent
Pursuant to Section 228 of the DGCL, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of the stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares of our stock entitled to vote thereon were present and voted, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our certificate of incorporation prohibits the taking of any action of our stockholders by written consent without a meeting.
Delaware anti-takeover statute
We have not opted out of, and therefore are subject to, Section 203 of the DGCL. Section 203 provides that, subject to certain exceptions specified in the law, a publicly-held Delaware corporation shall not engage in certain “business combinations” with any “interested stockholder” for a three-year period after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned under employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. Since Section 203 will apply to us, we expect that it would have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. In such event, we would also anticipate that Section 203 could discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.
 
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Under certain circumstances, Section 203 makes it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various business combinations with a corporation for a three-year period. The provisions of Section 203 may encourage companies interested in acquiring our company to negotiate in advance with our board of directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if our board of directors approves either the business combination or the transaction that results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. These provisions also may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Authorized but unissued capital stock
The DGCL does not require stockholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares. However, the listing requirements of Nasdaq, which apply so long as our common stock remains listed on Nasdaq, require stockholder approval of certain issuances equal to or exceeding 20% of the then outstanding voting power or then outstanding number of shares of common stock. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions.
One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may be to enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive our investors of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Registration rights
Certain of the holders of our common stock, or their transferees, are entitled to registration rights with respect to the registration of the resale of such shares under the Securities Act pursuant to our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, by and among us and certain of our investors.
Limitations of liability and indemnification
Our certificate of incorporation limits the liability of directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. The effect of these provisions is to eliminate our rights and the rights of our stockholders, through stockholders’ derivative suits on our behalf, to recover monetary damages from a director for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, including breaches resulting from grossly negligent behavior. However, exculpation does not apply to any director if the director has acted in bad faith, knowingly or intentionally violated the law, authorized illegal dividends or redemptions or derived an improper benefit from his or her actions as a director.
In addition, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We also expect to continue to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. We believe that these indemnification provisions and insurance are useful to attract and retain qualified directors and executive officers.
The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions may also have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders.
In addition to the indemnification required in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, we enter into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements provide for the indemnification of our directors and executive officers for all reasonable expenses and liabilities incurred in connection with any action or proceeding brought against them by reason of the fact that they are or were our agents. We believe that these provisions and indemnification agreements, as well as maintaining directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, help to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers.
 
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Market listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “REPL.”
Transfer agent and registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company N.A.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following is a general description of the terms of debt securities we may issue from time to time unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. Particular terms of any debt securities we offer will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities.
As required by Federal law for all bonds and notes of companies that are publicly offered, any debt securities we issue will be governed by a document called an “indenture.” We have summarized the general features of the debt securities to be governed by the indenture. The summary is not complete. An indenture is a contract between us and a financial institution acting as trustee on behalf of the holders of the debt securities, and is subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. The trustee has two main roles. First, the trustee can enforce holders’ rights against us if we default. There are some limitations on the extent to which the trustee acts on holders’ behalf, described in the second paragraph under “Description of Debt Securities — Events of Default.” Second, the trustee performs certain administrative duties, such as sending interest and principal payments to holders.
Because this section is a summary, it does not describe every aspect of any debt securities we may issue or the indenture governing any such debt securities. Particular terms of any debt securities we offer will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities, and we urge you to read the applicable executed indenture, which will be filed with the SEC at the time of any offering of debt securities, because it, and not this description, will define the rights of holders of such debt securities.
A prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of any series of debt securities we may issue, including some or all of the following:

the designation or title of the series of debt securities;

the total principal amount of the series of debt securities, the denominations in which the offered debt securities will be issued and whether the offering may be reopened for additional securities of that series and on what terms;

the percentage of the principal amount at which the series of debt securities will be offered;

the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

the rate or rates (which may be either fixed or variable) and/or the method of determining such rate or rates of interest, if any;

the date or dates from which any interest will accrue, or the method of determining such date or dates, and the date or dates on which any interest will be payable;

the terms for redemption, extension or early repayment, if any;

the currencies in which the series of debt securities are issued and payable;

whether the amount of payments of principal, interest or premium, if any, on a series of debt securities will be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method and how these amounts will be determined;

the place or places of payment, transfer, conversion and/or exchange of the debt securities;

the provision for any sinking fund;

any restrictive covenants;

events of default;

whether the series of debt securities are issuable in certificated form;

any provisions for legal defeasance or covenant defeasance;

whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities rather than pay the additional amounts (and the terms of this option);
 
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any provisions for convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities into or for any other securities;

whether the debt securities are subject to subordination and the terms of such subordination;

any listing of the debt securities on any securities exchange;

whether the issuance of the debt securities may limit the incurrence of additional debt;

if applicable, a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations, including those related to original issue discount, if applicable; and

any other material terms.
The debt securities may be secured or unsecured obligations. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, principal, interest and premium, if any, will be paid by us in immediately available funds.
General
The indenture may provide that any debt securities proposed to be sold under this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities (“offered debt securities”) and any debt securities issuable upon conversion or exchange of other offered securities (“underlying debt securities”) may be issued under the indenture in one or more series.
For purposes of this prospectus, any reference to the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, debt securities will include additional amounts if required by the terms of the debt securities.
Debt securities issued under an indenture, when a single trustee is acting for all debt securities issued under the indenture, are called the “indenture securities.” The indenture may also provide that there may be more than one trustee thereunder, each with respect to one or more different series of securities issued thereunder. See “Description of Debt Securities — Resignation of Trustee” below. At a time when two or more trustees are acting under an indenture, each with respect to only certain series, the term “indenture securities” means the one or more series of debt securities with respect to which each respective trustee is acting. In the event that there is more than one trustee under an indenture, the powers and trust obligations of each trustee described in this prospectus will extend only to the one or more series of indenture securities for which it is trustee. If two or more trustees are acting under an indenture, then the indenture securities for which each trustee is acting would be treated as if issued under separate indentures.
We refer you to the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any debt securities we may issue from time to time for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection, that will be applicable with respect to such debt securities.
We have the ability to issue indenture securities with terms different from those of indenture securities previously issued and, without the consent of the holders thereof, to reopen a previous issue of a series of indenture securities and issue additional indenture securities of that series unless the reopening was restricted when that series was created.
Conversion and Exchange
If any debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities, the related prospectus supplement will explain the terms and conditions of the conversion or exchange, including the conversion price or exchange ratio (or the calculation method), the conversion or exchange period (or how the period will be determined), if conversion or exchange will be mandatory or at the option of the holder or us, provisions for adjusting the conversion price or the exchange ratio and provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of the redemption of the underlying debt securities. These terms may also include provisions under which the number or amount of other securities to be received by the holders of the debt securities upon conversion or exchange would be calculated according to the market price of the other securities as of a time stated in the prospectus supplement.
 
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Payment and Paying Agents
We will pay interest to the person listed in the applicable trustee’s records as the owner of the debt security at the close of business on a particular day in advance of each due date for interest, even if that person no longer owns the debt security on the interest due date. That day, often approximately two weeks in advance of the interest due date, is called the “record date.” Because we will pay all the interest for an interest period to the holders on the record date, holders buying and selling debt securities must work out between themselves the appropriate purchase price. The most common manner is to adjust the sales price of the debt securities to prorate interest fairly between buyer and seller based on their respective ownership periods within the particular interest period. This prorated interest amount is called “accrued interest.”
Events of Default
Holders of debt securities of any series will have rights if an Event of Default occurs in respect of the debt securities of such series and is not cured, as described later in this subsection. The term “Event of Default” in respect of the debt securities of any series means any of the following:

we do not pay the principal of, or any premium on, a debt security of the series on its due date;

we do not pay interest on a debt security of the series within 30 days of its due date;

we do not deposit any sinking fund payment in respect of debt securities of the series on its due date and we do not cure this default within five days;

we remain in breach of a covenant in respect of debt securities of the series for 90 days after we receive a written notice of default stating we are in breach. The notice must be sent by either the trustee or holders of at least 25% of the principal amount of debt securities of the series;

we file for bankruptcy or certain other events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur; and

any other Event of Default occurs in respect of debt securities of the series described in the prospectus supplement.
An Event of Default for a particular series of debt securities does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series of debt securities issued under the same or any other indenture. The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any default, except in the payment of principal, premium or interest, if it considers the withholding of notice to be in the best interests of the holders.
Remedies if an Event of Default Occurs
If an Event of Default has occurred and has not been cured or waived, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of the affected series may declare the entire principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and immediately payable. This is called a declaration of acceleration of maturity. A declaration of acceleration of maturity may be canceled by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of the affected series if the default is cured or waived and certain other conditions are satisfied.
Except in cases of default, where the trustee has some special duties, the trustee typically is not required to take any action under an indenture at the request of any holders unless the holders offer the trustee reasonable protection from expenses and liability (called an “indemnity”). If reasonable indemnity is provided, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the relevant series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any lawsuit or other formal legal action seeking any remedy available to the trustee. The trustee may refuse to follow those directions in certain circumstances.
Before a holder is allowed to bypass the trustee and bring its own lawsuit or other formal legal action or take other steps to enforce its rights or protect its interests relating to any debt securities, the following must occur:

the holder must give the trustee written notice that an Event of Default has occurred and remains uncured;
 
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the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities of the relevant series must make a written request that the trustee take action because of the default and must offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee against the cost and other liabilities of taking that action;

the trustee must not have taken action for 60 days after receipt of the above notice and offer of indemnity; and

the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities must not have given the trustee a direction inconsistent with the above notice during that 60-day period.
However, a holder is entitled at any time to bring a lawsuit for the payment of money due on its debt securities on or after the due date. Each year, we will furnish to each trustee a written statement of certain of our officers certifying that to their knowledge we are in compliance with the indenture and the debt securities, or else specifying any default.
Waiver of Default
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the relevant series of debt securities may waive a default for all such series of debt securities. If this happens, the default will be treated as if it had not occurred. No one can waive a payment default on a holder’s debt security, however, without the holder’s approval.
Merger or Consolidation
Under the terms of an indenture, we may be permitted to consolidate or merge with another entity. We may also be permitted to sell all or substantially all of our assets to another entity. However, typically we may not take any of these actions unless all the following conditions are met:

if we do not survive such transaction or we convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety, the acquiring company must be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, or other corporate form, organized under the laws of any state of the United States or the District of Columbia, and such company must agree to be legally responsible for our debt securities, and, if not already subject to the jurisdiction of any state of the United States or the District of Columbia, the new company must submit to such jurisdiction for all purposes with respect to the debt securities and appoint an agent for service of process;

alternatively, we must be the surviving company;

immediately after the transaction no Event of Default will exist;

we must deliver certain certificates and documents to the trustee; and

we must satisfy any other requirements specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of debt securities.
Modification or Waiver
There are three types of changes we may make to an indenture and the debt securities issued thereunder.
Changes Requiring Approval
First, there are changes that we may not be able to make to debt securities without specific approval of all of the holders. The following is a list of the types of changes that may require specific approval:

change the stated maturity of the principal of or rate of interest on a debt security;

reduce any amounts due on a debt security;

reduce the amount of principal payable upon acceleration of the maturity of a security following a default;

at any time after a change of control has occurred, reduce any premium payable upon a change of control;
 
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change the place or currency of payment on a debt security (except as otherwise described in the prospectus or prospectus supplement);

impair the right of holders to sue for payment;

adversely affect any right to convert or exchange a debt security in accordance with its terms;

reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities whose consent is needed to modify or amend the indenture;

reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities whose consent is needed to waive compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or to waive certain defaults;

modify any other aspect of the provisions of the indenture dealing with supplemental indentures, modification and waiver of past defaults, changes to the quorum or voting requirements or the waiver of certain covenants; and

change any obligation we have to pay additional amounts.
Changes Not Requiring Approval
The second type of change does not require any vote by the holders of the debt securities. This type is limited to clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect holders of the outstanding debt securities in any material respect, including the addition of covenants and guarantees. We also do not need any approval to make any change that affects only debt securities to be issued under the indenture after the change takes effect.
Changes Requiring Majority Approval
Any other change to the indenture and the debt securities may require the following approval:

if the change affects only one series of debt securities, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of that series; and

if the change affects more than one series of debt securities issued under the same indenture, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of all of the series affected by the change, with all affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of all of the series of debt securities issued under an indenture, voting together as one class for this purpose, may waive our compliance obligations with respect to some of our covenants in that indenture. However, we cannot obtain a waiver of a payment default or of any of the matters covered by the bullet points included above under “Description of Debt Securities — Modification or Waiver — Changes Requiring Approval.”
Further Details Concerning Voting
When taking a vote on proposed changes to the indenture and the debt securities, we expect to use the following rules to decide how much principal to attribute to a debt security:

for original issue discount securities, we will use the principal amount that would be due and payable on the voting date if the maturity of these debt securities were accelerated to that date because of a default;

for debt securities whose principal amount is not known (for example, because it is based on an index), we will use a special rule for that debt security described in the related prospectus supplement; and

for debt securities denominated in one or more foreign currencies, we will use the U.S. dollar equivalent.
Debt securities will not be considered outstanding, and therefore not eligible to vote, if we have deposited or set aside in trust money for their payment or redemption. Debt securities will also not be eligible to vote if they have been fully defeased as described later under “Description of Debt Securities — Defeasance — Legal Defeasance.”
 
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We generally will be entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the holders of outstanding indenture securities that are entitled to vote or take other action under the indenture. If we set a record date for a vote or other action to be taken by holders of one or more series, that vote or action may be taken only by persons who are holders of outstanding indenture securities of those series on the record date and must be taken within 11 months following the record date.
Book-entry and other indirect holders will need to consult their banks or brokers for information on how approval may be granted or denied if we seek to change the indenture or the debt securities or request a waiver.
Defeasance
The following provisions will be applicable to each series of debt securities unless we state in the applicable prospectus supplement that the provisions of covenant defeasance and legal defeasance will not be applicable to that series.
Covenant Defeasance
We can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the indenture under which the particular series was issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, the holders would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay holders’ debt securities. If applicable, a holder also would be released from the subordination provisions described under “Description of Debt Securities — Indenture Provisions — Subordination” below. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:

If the debt securities of the particular series are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of such debt securities a combination of money and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities on their various due dates;

We may be required to deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current U.S. Federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing the holders to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid the debt securities ourselves at maturity; and

We must deliver to the trustee certain documentation stating that all conditions precedent to covenant defeasance have been complied with.
If we accomplish covenant defeasance, holders can still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. In fact, if one of the remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, holders may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.
Legal Defeasance
As described below, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the debt securities of a particular series (called “legal defeasance”), (1) if there is a change in U.S. Federal tax law that allows us to effect the release without causing the holders to be taxed any differently than if the release had not occurred, and (2) if we put in place the following other arrangements for holders to be repaid:

If the debt securities of the particular series are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of such debt securities a combination of money and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities on their various due dates;

We may be required to deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current U.S. Federal tax law or an Internal Revenue Service ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing the holders to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did
 
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not make the deposit and just repaid the debt securities ourselves at maturity. Under current U.S. Federal tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we paid each holder its share of the cash and notes or bonds at the time the cash and notes or bonds were deposited in trust in exchange for its debt securities and holders would recognize gain or loss on the debt securities at the time of the deposit; and

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion and officers’ certificate stating that all conditions precedent to legal defeasance have been complied with.
If we ever did accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, holders would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. Holders could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of our lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent. If applicable, holders would also be released from the subordination provisions described later under “Description of Debt Securities — Indenture Provisions — Subordination.”
Resignation of Trustee
Each trustee may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of indenture securities provided that a successor trustee is appointed to act with respect to such series. In the event that two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of indenture securities under the indenture, each of the trustees will be a trustee of a trust separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee.
Indenture Provisions — Subordination
Upon any distribution of our assets upon our dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on any indenture securities denominated as subordinated debt securities is to be subordinated to the extent provided in the indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness (defined below), but our obligation to holders to make payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such subordinated debt securities will not otherwise be affected. In addition, no payment on account of principal (or premium, if any), interest or sinking fund, if any, may be made on such subordinated debt securities at any time unless full payment of all amounts due in respect of the principal (and premium, if any), interest and sinking fund, if any, on Senior Indebtedness has been made or duly provided for in money or money’s worth.
In the event that, notwithstanding the foregoing, any payment from us is received by the trustee in respect of subordinated debt securities or by the holders of any of such subordinated debt securities before all Senior Indebtedness is paid in full, the payment or distribution must be paid over to the holders of the Senior Indebtedness or on their behalf for application to the payment of all the Senior Indebtedness remaining unpaid until all the Senior Indebtedness has been paid in full, after giving effect to any concurrent payment or distribution to the holders of the Senior Indebtedness. Subject to the payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness, the holders of such subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of the Senior Indebtedness to the extent of payments made to the holders of the Senior Indebtedness out of the distributive share of such subordinated debt securities.
By reason of this subordination, in the event of a distribution of our assets upon our insolvency, certain of our senior creditors may recover more, ratably, than holders of any subordinated debt securities. The related indenture will provide that these subordination provisions will not apply to money and securities held in trust under the defeasance provisions of the indenture.
“Senior Indebtedness” will be defined in an applicable indenture as the principal of (and premium, if any) and unpaid interest on:

our indebtedness (including indebtedness of others guaranteed by us), whenever created, incurred, assumed or guaranteed, for money borrowed (other than indenture securities issued under the indenture and denominated as subordinated debt securities), unless in the instrument creating or evidencing the same or under which the same is outstanding it is provided that this indebtedness is not senior or prior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities; and
 
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renewals, extensions, modifications and refinancings of any of such indebtedness.
The prospectus supplement accompanying any series of indenture securities denominated as subordinated debt securities will set forth the approximate amount of our Senior Indebtedness outstanding as of a recent date.
Trustee
We intend to name the indenture trustee for each series of indenture securities in the related prospectus supplement.
Certain Considerations Relating to Foreign Currencies
Debt securities denominated or payable in foreign currencies may entail significant risks. These risks include the possibility of significant fluctuations in the foreign currency markets, the imposition or modification of foreign exchange controls and potential illiquidity in the secondary market. These risks will vary depending upon the currency or currencies involved and will be more fully described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock or debt securities. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. The particular terms of the warrants and the extent, if any, to which the general terms and provisions may apply to the warrants so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Warrants may be issued independently or together with other securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.
A copy of the forms of the warrant agreement and the warrant certificate relating to any particular issue of warrants will be filed with the SEC each time we issue warrants, and you should read those documents for provisions that may be important to you. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the forms of the warrant agreement and the related warrant certificate, see “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Stock Warrants
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to issue shares of our common stock or shares of our preferred stock will describe the terms of the common share warrants and preferred share warrants, including the following:

the title of the warrants;

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

the aggregate number of the warrants;

the designation and terms of the shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

the terms for changes or adjustments to the exercise price of the warrants;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities that the warrants are issued with and the number of warrants issued with each security;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

the number of shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which the shares may be purchased upon exercise;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants commence and expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

if applicable, a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations;

anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants; and

any other information we think is important about the warrants.
 
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Debt Warrants
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to issue debt securities will describe the terms of those warrants, including the following:

the title of the warrants;

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

the aggregate number of the warrants;

the designation and terms of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

the terms for changes or adjustments to the exercise price of the warrants;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the debt securities that the warrants are issued with and the number of warrants issued with each debt security;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which the debt securities may be purchased upon exercise;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

whether the warrants represented by the warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

information relating to book-entry procedures, if any;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

if applicable, a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations;

anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants; and

any other information we think is important about the warrants.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder of the warrant to purchase at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the number of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or the principal amount of debt securities being offered. Holders may exercise warrants at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants are void. Holders may exercise warrants as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants being offered.
Until a holder exercises the warrants to purchase our shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or debt securities, the holder will not have any rights as a holder of our shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or debt securities, as the case may be, by virtue of ownership of warrants.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue, in one or more series, units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, or warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock in any combination. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreement that contains the terms of the units. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that describe the terms of the series of units we are offering before the issuance of the related series of units.
Units may be issued under a unit agreement that we enter into with a unit agent. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of units being offered.
The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities composing the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities composing the units; and

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell securities:

through underwriters;

through dealers;

through agents;

directly to purchasers;

in “at the market offering,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act; or

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.
In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution to our existing security holders.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions. The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

the public offering or purchase price;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.
If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.
In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in any accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.
If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term
 
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is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.
Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.
Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.
We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable
 
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prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.
In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters, including the validity of the issuance of the securities offered, will be passed upon for us by Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Additional legal matters may be passed upon by us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act, and in accordance with the Exchange Act, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov). Our corporate website address is www.replimune.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document.
 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information contained in documents that we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede prior information. Any information so updated and superseded shall not be deemed, except as so updated and superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, and prior to the termination of the offering. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless specifically stated to the contrary, none of the information that is not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, will be incorporated by reference into, or otherwise included in, this prospectus:
1.
our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on June 3, 2020;
2.
our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 7, 2020;
3.
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 6, 2020 (other than with respect to Item 7.01 thereof), June 3, 2020 (other than with respect to Items  2.02 and 7.01 thereof), June 8, 2020, June 10, 2020, July 1, 2020, and July 22, 2020;
4.
the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on July 29, 2020, that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020; and
5.
our description of our common stock contained in the registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on July 17, 2018, and all amendments and reports updating such description.
We make available, free of charge, through our website at www.replimune.com under “Investor and Media” our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered part of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. You may also obtain, free of charge, a copy of any of these documents (other than exhibits to these documents unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into these documents or referred to in this prospectus) by writing or calling us at the following address and telephone number:
Replimune Group, Inc.
Attention: Investor Relations
500 Unicorn Park
Woburn MA 01801
+1-(781) 222-9600
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.
 
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Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
PROSPECTUS

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)
Dated August 11, 2020
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_replimune-4c.jpg]
Up to $75,000,000
Common Stock
We have entered into a Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, or the Agent, dated August 11, 2020, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, or Common Stock, offered by this prospectus. References in this prospectus to the Sales Agreement refer to the foregoing sales agreement. In accordance with the terms of such sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our Common Stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through the Agent, acting as our sales agent or principal. This offering supersedes and replaces the program we commenced on August 8, 2019.
Sales of our Common Stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other existing trading market for our Common Stock. The Agent will use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of Common Stock requested to be sold by us under the Sales Agreement, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on terms mutually agreed between the Agent and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The Agent will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 15 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to the Agent. In connection with the sale of the Common Stock on our behalf, the Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We also have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agent with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “REPL.” On August 10, 2020, the closing price of our Common Stock was $24.51.
Investing in our Common Stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should consider before deciding to purchase our Common Stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
SVB Leerink
The date of this prospectus is August   , 2020.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $75,000,000. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 17 of this prospectus.
This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of Common Stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not, and the Agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.
We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.
For investors outside the United States: neither we, nor the Agent, have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about, and to observe any restrictions relating to, this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to (i) “Replimune,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Replimune Group, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries and (ii) a year are references to the applicable calendar year and not our fiscal year.
 
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MARKET DATA
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein include market and industry data and forecasts concerning our business and the markets for certain cancers, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions, that we have derived from independent consultant reports, publicly available information, various industry, medical and general publications, other published industry sources, government data and our internal data and estimates. Independent consultant reports, industry publications and other published industry sources generally indicate that the information contained therein was obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Our internal data and estimates are based upon information obtained from trade and business organizations and other contacts in the markets in which we operate and our management’s understanding of industry conditions.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights selected information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information under the caption “Risk Factors” herein and the applicable prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Our Company
General
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company committed to applying our leading expertise in the field of oncolytic immunotherapy to transform the lives of cancer patients. We use our proprietary Immulytic platform to design and develop product candidates that are intended to maximally activate the immune system against cancer.
Oncolytic immunotherapy, which we intend to establish as the second cornerstone of immune-based cancer treatment, is an emerging class of immuno-oncology therapy, alongside checkpoint blockade, that exploits the ability of certain viruses to selectively replicate in and directly kill tumors, as well as induce a potent, patient-specific, anti-tumor immune response. Such oncolytic, or “cancer killing,” viruses have the potential to generate an immune response targeted to an individual patient’s particular set of tumor antigens, including neo-antigens that are uniquely present in tumors. Our product candidates incorporate multiple mechanisms of action into a practical “off-the-shelf” approach that is intended to maximize the immune response against a patient’s cancer and to offer significant advantages over personalized vaccine approaches. We believe that the bundling of multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer into single therapies will simplify the development path of our product candidates, while also improving patient outcomes at a lower cost to the healthcare system than the use of multiple different drugs.
The foundation of our Immulytic platform consists of a proprietary, engineered strain of herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, that has been “armed” with a fusogenic glycoprotein intended to substantially increase anti-tumor activity. Our Immulytic platform enables us to incorporate various genes into HSV-1 that are intended to further augment the inherent properties of HSV-1 in order to both directly destroy tumor cells and induce an anti-tumor immune response. We currently have three product candidates in our development pipeline, RP1, our lead product candidate, and additionally RP2 and RP3.
We are currently conducting a number of clinical trials of RP1, both as a monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, with a focus on immune-responsive tumors. We are conducting a randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial of RP1 in approximately 240 patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, or CSCC, RP1’s lead indication. This registration-directed clinical trial is evaluating RP1 in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Regeneron, versus cemiplimab alone. Regeneron has granted to us a non-exclusive royalty-free license to cemiplimab for use in this trial, is funding one-half of the clinical trial costs, and is supplying cemiplimab at no cost to us. If compelling clinical data are generated demonstrating the benefits of the combined treatment in this clinical trial, we believe the data from this Phase 2 clinical trial could support a filing with regulatory authorities for marketing approval. Recruitment into this Phase 2 clinical trial is expected to take approximately eighteen to twenty-four months and we expect the primary data readout from the clinical trial in 2022. We have also opened for enrollment a Phase 1b clinical trial of single agent RP1 in solid organ transplant recipients with CSCC, which we believe to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients). We intend to enroll approximately 30 patients in this clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant recipients with recurrent CSCC.
We have entered into a collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS, under which it has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and is supplying at no cost, its anti-PD-1 therapy, nivolumab,
 
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for use in combination with RP1 in a multi-cohort clinical trial. We are currently enrolling a 125-patient extension cohort of RP1 combined with nivolumab in anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma. We initiated this cohort after completing enrollment in a prior Phase 2 cohort in the same clinical trial of approximately 30 patients with melanoma. The data generated in the melanoma cohort demonstrated that RP1 combined with nivolumab has the potential to treat anti-PD-1 refractory melanoma. We also believe this cohort to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients).
We continue to enroll patients in other Phase 2 cohorts of approximately 30 patients each, testing RP1 in combination with nivolumab in non-melanoma skin cancers and microsatellite instability high, or MSI-H/dMMR, tumors under our collaboration with BMS. Due in part to the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, or COVID-19, we expect that the non-melanoma skin cancer cohort to be fully accrued by the end of 2020. Similarly, it is likely that accumulating sufficient data to inform a decision as to whether to pursue MSI-H/dMMR tumors into registration-directed development will be delayed into 2021. In addition, as a result of changes in the competitive landscape, we recently announced our intention to replace a 30 patient bladder cancer cohort with a cohort of patients with anti-PD-1 refractory non-small cell lung cancer. We intend to initiate enrollment into this cohort later this year.
We are also developing additional product candidates, RP2 and RP3, that have been further engineered to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and are intended to address additional tumor types. In addition to the expression of GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF, RP2 has been engineered to express an antibody-like molecule intended to block the activity of CTLA-4, a protein that inhibits the immune response to tumors. RP3 has been engineered with the intent to further stimulate an anti-tumor response through activation of the immune co-stimulatory pathways through expression of the ligands for CD40 and 4-1BB.
We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 in October 2019. The Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 is also being conducted as a collaboration with BMS, under which BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and will supply at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP2. We expect to release initial safety and efficacy data from this Phase 1 clinical trial in the second half of 2020. Based on the data generated to date, we have decided to amend the protocol to allow for an expansion of the second part of this clinical trial (of RP2 combined with nivolumab) from 12 to 30 patients.
We intend to file an Investigational New Drug application, or IND, and/or foreign equivalents for RP3 and, assuming regulatory clearance, enter clinical development during 2020. IND and/or foreign equivalent enabling studies of RP3 are currently underway.
Recent Developments
During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, we announced interim data from the Phase 2 part of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of RP1 in which we are assessing the safety and efficacy of RP1 in combination with nivolumab in cohorts of approximately 30 patients. We announced that four of seven evaluable CSCC patients in the 30-patient non-melanoma skin cancer cohort have ongoing complete responses and six of the seven evaluable patients have either an ongoing complete response or an ongoing partial response. We continue to believe this interim data demonstrates that RP1 in combination with nivolumab is well-tolerated, demonstrates immune activation and continues to drive deep and durable responses in patients with CSCC. Of particular note, we observed clear differentiation in the number of complete responses in patients with advanced CSCC who were treated with RP1 in combination with nivolumab as compared to the number of complete responses which we believe would be expected in patients if they were treated with nivolumab alone.
We have enrolled and treated 36 melanoma patients, including the six melanoma patients enrolled into the Phase 1 expansion cohort of RP1 combined with nivolumab. 16 patients with anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma have been treated, as have an additional 20 patients with anti-PD-1 naïve cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma (all anti-PD-1 refractory), and mucosal melanoma (anti-PD-1 naïve or refractory). Five of the 16 anti-PD-1 refractory cutaneous melanoma patients at the data cut-off date met the formal definition of response, with an additional two patients remaining on treatment with the opportunity for response. Accordingly, we will observe a final response rate from this cohort of at least 31%. Four of
 
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eight anti-PD-1 naïve cutaneous melanoma patients met the formal definition of response at the data cut-off date, with an additional two patients continuing on treatment with the opportunity for response. Additionally, two of the six mucosal melanoma patients met the formal definition of response at the data cut-off date, and two of the six uveal melanoma patients are on study with the opportunity of response, with one such uveal melanoma patient demonstrating a 27.3% reduction in target disease burden as of the last CT scan in April 2020.
Corporate Information
The parent company of our group is Replimune Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation that was formed in July 2017. Prior to the corporate reorganization described below, the parent company of our group was Replimune Limited, a private company limited by shares incorporated in England and Wales (registered number 09496393), which was organized in March 2015.
In July 2017, all of the outstanding equity securities of Replimune Limited were exchanged for equity securities of Replimune Group, Inc., a newly formed Delaware corporation. As a result of the reorganization, Replimune Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Replimune Group, Inc.
Our principal executive office is located at 500 University Park, Woburn, MA 01801 and our telephone number is (781) 222-9600. Our website address is https://www.replimune.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus. Our fiscal year end is March 31.
We own various United Kingdom registered trademarks and United States federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including our company name and the “Immulytic” platform name. All other trademarks, service marks and trade names used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. These reduced reporting requirements include reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements and no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) March 31, 2024, (2) the last day of the fiscal year (a) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (b) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior September 30th, and (3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three year period. References in this prospectus to “emerging growth company” shall have the meaning ascribed to it in the JOBS Act.
An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

an exemption from the requirements to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended;

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

exemptions from the requirement to hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and to obtain stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We may take advantage of these reduced reporting requirements until such time as we cease to be an emerging growth company.
 
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We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different from the information that you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Additionally, we are also a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Regulation S-K. We will remain a smaller reporting company if we have (i) less than $250 million in market value of our shares held by non-affiliates as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter or (ii) less than $100 million of annual revenues in our most recent fiscal year completed before the last business day of our second fiscal quarter and less than $700 million in market value of our shares held by non-affiliates as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
 
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THE OFFERING
Common Stock offered by us:
Shares of Common Stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.
Common Stock to be outstanding after this
offering:
Up to 43,340,395 shares, assuming sales of 3,059,975 shares of Common Stock in this offering at an offering price of $24.51 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 10, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on how many shares of our Common Stock we choose to sell and the prices at which such sales occur.
Manner of offering:
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through the Agent. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 15 of this prospectus.
Use of proceeds:
Our management will retain broad discretion regarding the allocation and use of the net proceeds from this offering. We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering together with our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, to fund the development of RP1 through the completion of our ongoing clinical trials in RP1, to fund clinical development with RP2 and RP3 and for general corporate purposes, including working capital requirements and operating expenses. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 10.
Risk factors:
Investing in our Common Stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our Common Stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol:
“REPL”
The number of shares of Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering, as set forth above, is based on 40,280,420 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, which amount excludes:

6,510,522 shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $9.90 per share;

497,344 shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at an exercise price of $1.01 per share;

3,721,738 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of existing pre-funded warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share;

1,909,204 shares of our Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan; and

1,031,868 shares of our Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our Common Stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below and discussed under the sections captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our Common Stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to this Offering
Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and may not use the proceeds effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them in a manner that does not effectively maximize the potential of our clinical development programs and pipeline. Our management’s use of the net proceeds from this offering may not increase the market value of our Common Stock. In fact, our failure to apply these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, delay the development of our product candidates, and cause the market value of our common stock to decline.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our Common Stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our Common Stock at prices that may not be the same as the prices per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the prices per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares of our Common Stock or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing shareholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our Common Stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into our Common Stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the prices per share paid by investors in this offering.
It is not possible to predict the aggregate proceeds resulting from sales of our Common Stock made under the Sales Agreement.
Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to the Agent at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares of our Common Stock that are sold through the Agent after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our Common Stock during the sales period, the limits we set with the Agent in any applicable placement notice, and the demand for our Common Stock during the sales period. Because the price per share of our Common Stock will fluctuate during the sales period, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales.
The shares of our Common Stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market” offerings, and investors who buy shares of our Common Stock at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares of our Common Stock in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares of our Common Stock sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or a committee thereof, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares of our Common Stock to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares of our Common Stock they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
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The price of our Common Stock may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our Common Stock in this offering.
Our stock price has been and is likely to be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your Common Stock at or above the price at which it was acquired. The market price for our Common Stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

the success of competitive products or technologies;

results of clinical trials of RP1 and our other product candidates or those of our competitors;

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

the level of expenses related to the development of RP1 and our other product candidates or clinical development programs;

the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or drugs;

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

political and economic instability, including the impact of COVID-19, the possibility of an economic recession, international hostilities, acts of terrorism and governmental restrictions, inflation, trade relationships and military and political alliances; and

general economic, industry and market conditions.
The offering could negatively impact our ability to use our net operating losses and other tax attributes.
The ability to fully utilize our net operating loss carryforwards, excess business interest carryforwards, and tax credit carryforwards will be limited under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if we were to undergo a change in ownership of more than 50% of our capital stock over a three-year period as measured under Section 382. The application of these rules is complex and generally focus on ownership changes involving stockholders owning directly or indirectly 5% or more of our common stock, subject to complex aggregation, segregation, and constructive ownership rules. The Section 382 limitations could come into play in the event of the sale of the company, significant new stock issuances or other transactions, including secondary market sales of our common stock.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Any statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include, among other things:

the timing, progress, and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for RP1 or any of our other product candidates, including the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;

our ability to obtain additional funding as necessary;

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of our Biologics License Application, and filing for, and final approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of, RP1 or any of our other product candidates;

the timing, scope, or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;

our ability to develop our product candidates for use in combination with other checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti-PD-1;

our ability to develop and advance any future product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations for RP1 or our other product candidates if approved for commercial use;

the costs of operating our in-house manufacturing facility;

our estimates regarding expenses and capital requirements;

the implementation of our business model and our strategic plans for our business, RP1 and our other product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of RP1 or our other product candidates;

the potential benefits of and our ability to establish or maintain future collaborations or strategic relationships;

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering RP1 and our other product candidates, claims others may make regarding rights in our intellectual property, and any potential infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any third-party intellectual property rights;

our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology;

the impact of laws and regulations;

the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, or COVID-19, as a global pandemic and related public health issues;

our ability to remediate the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting and to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;
 
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our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

the other risks and uncertainties described under “Risk factors” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020, our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and our subsequent filings which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except to the extent required by applicable law. You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our Common Stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.
We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering together with our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, to fund the development of RP1 through the completion of our ongoing clinical trials in RP1, to fund clinical development with RP2 and RP3 and for general corporate purposes, including working capital requirements and operating expenses.
This expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds from this offering or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress and results of our research and development efforts, the amount of cash used by our operations, and the other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our Common Stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our Common Stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our Common Stock as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $277.8 million, or approximately $6.90 per share of Common Stock based upon 40,280,420 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020.
After giving effect to the sale of our Common Stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $24.51 per share, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 10, 2020, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been approximately $350.4 million, or $8.08 per share of Common Stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.18 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of $16.43 per share to new investors in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual prices to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the times shares of our Common Stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.
Assumed offering price per share
$ 24.51
Net tangible book value per share as June 30, 2020
$ 6.90
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering
1.18
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
8.08
Dilution per share to new investors participating in the offering
$ 16.43
The number of shares of Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering, as set forth above, is based on 40,280,420 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, which amount excludes:

6,510,522 shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $9.90 per share;

497,344 shares of our Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at an exercise price of $1.01 per share;

3,721,738 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of existing pre-funded warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share;

1,909,204 shares of our Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan; and

1,031,868 shares of our Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
To the extent outstanding warrants or options are exercised at prices per share that are less than the prices paid by investors in this offering, or shares of Common Stock issued upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units, there will be further dilution to investors. In addition, to the extent that we issue additional equity securities in connection with future capital raising activities, our then-existing stockholders may experience dilution.
 
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MATERIAL UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR
NON-U.S. HOLDERS
The following discussion summarizes certain United States, or U.S., federal income tax considerations relevant to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our Common Stock by Non-U.S. Holders (as defined below). This summary is based upon the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect on the date hereof. These authorities may be changed, possibly retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those set forth below. We have not sought any ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions.
This summary also does not address the tax considerations arising under the laws of any non-U.S., state, or local jurisdiction or under U.S. federal gift and estate tax laws. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to a Non-U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances or to Non-U.S. Holders that may be subject to special tax rules, including, without limitation:

banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

tax-exempt organizations;

controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

partnerships or other entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

dealers in securities or currencies;

traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings;

persons that own, or are deemed to own, more than 5% of our Common Stock, except to the extent specifically set forth below;

real estate investment trusts or regulated investment companies;

certain former citizens or long-term residents of the U.S.;

persons who hold our Common Stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion, constructive sale, or other integrated security transaction;

accrual method taxpayers subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of their use of financial statements (pursuant to Section 451 of the Code); or

persons who do not hold our Common Stock as a capital asset (within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code).
If a partnership or entity classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our Common Stock, the tax treatment of a partner or such partnership generally will depend on the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. Accordingly, partnerships that hold our Common Stock, and partners in such partnerships, should consult their tax advisors.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor with respect to the application of the U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation, as well as any tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our Common Stock arising under the U.S. federal estate or gift tax rules or under the laws of any state, local, non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.
For purposes of this summary, a “Non-U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of shares of our Common Stock (other than a partnership) that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is not (i) an individual that is a citizen or resident of the U.S.; (ii) a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is created or organized under the laws of the U.S., any state thereof or the
 
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District of Columbia; (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or (iv) a trust if (A) a court within the U.S. is able to exercise primary control over its administration and one or more “United States persons” (as defined in the Code) have the authority to control all substantial decisions of such trust, or (B) the trust has made an election under the applicable Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.
Distributions
In general, if we make a distribution to a Non-U.S. Holder with respect to our Common Stock, it will constitute a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits as determined under the Code. If the amount of a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, such excess first will be treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of the Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in our Common Stock and thereafter will be treated as capital gain subject to the tax treatment described below in “Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Stock.” Dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder that are not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the U.S. will generally be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividends, unless such dividend is eligible for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty. In order to obtain a reduced rate of withholding, a Non-U.S. Holder is generally required to provide to the applicable withholding agent an IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E (or other applicable form) properly certifying such Non-U.S. Holder’s eligibility for the reduced rate. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced withholding rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for a refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under an applicable income tax treaty and the timing and manner of claiming the benefits.
Dividends that are effectively connected with a Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the U.S. (and, if an applicable income tax treaty so requires, are attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the U.S.) are taxed on a net-income basis at the regular graduated rates and in the manner applicable to United States persons. The Non-U.S. Holder is generally required to provide to the applicable withholding agent a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI (or a suitable substitute form) in order to claim an exemption from, or reduction in, U.S. federal withholding. In addition, a “branch profits tax” may be imposed at a 30% rate (or a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty) on any effectively connected dividends received by a foreign corporation for the taxable year, as adjusted for certain items.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Stock
A Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax with respect to gain, if any, recognized on the sale or other taxable disposition of shares of our Common Stock unless (i) the gain is effectively connected with the conduct by such Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if an applicable income tax treaty so requires, is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the United States), (ii) in the case of an individual, such Non-U.S. Holder is present in the United States for 183 or more days in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are satisfied, or (iii) our Common Stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest by reason of our status as a U.S. real property holding corporation, or a USRPHC under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, or FIRPTA, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
In the case described in (i) above, gain or loss recognized on the disposition of shares of our Common Stock generally will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation in the same manner as if such gain or loss were recognized by a U.S. person, and, in the case of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a foreign corporation, may also be subject to the branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, or a lower applicable treaty branch profits tax rate.
In the case described in (ii) above, the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to a 30% tax on any capital gain recognized on the disposition of shares of our Common Stock, after being offset by certain U.S.-source capital losses.
 
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In the case described in (iii) above, a corporation is a USRPHC if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests and its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business (all as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes). We have not determined whether we are a USRPHC. If we were a USRPHC during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period, Non-U.S. Holders owning (directly or indirectly) more than 5% of our Common Stock will be subject to different tax consequences and should consult their own tax advisers. FIRPTA will not, however, apply to gain realized on the sale or disposition of our Common Stock by a Non-U.S. Holder that owns, directly or indirectly at any time during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the date of disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period, 5% or less of our common stock so long as our common stock is “regularly traded on an established securities market” (such as the Nasdaq Global Select Market) as defined under applicable Treasury regulations.
If gain on the sale or other taxable disposition of our Common Stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, a Non-U.S. Holder generally would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the gain realized on a disposition of the common stock at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to U.S. persons, generally would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return, and, if our Common Stock was not then publicly traded, and certain other conditions were met, the purchaser would be required to withhold 15% of the sales proceeds.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
Information returns will be filed annually with the IRS in connection with any dividends paid on our Common Stock to a Non-U.S. Holder. Copies of these information returns may also be made available under the provisions of a specific tax treaty or other agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides. Unless the Non-U.S. Holder complies with certification procedures to establish that it is not a United States person, information returns may be filed with the IRS in connection with the proceeds from a sale or other disposition, and the Non-U.S. Holder may be subject to backup withholding (currently at a rate of 24%) on dividends paid on our Common Stock or on the proceeds from a sale or other disposition of shares of our Common Stock. The certification procedures required to claim a reduction or exemption from withholding tax on payments described above under “Distributions” will satisfy the certification requirements necessary to avoid backup withholding as well. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, and additional guidance issued by the IRS, a U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% will generally apply to dividends paid on our Common Stock to (i) a foreign financial institution (as a beneficial owner or as an intermediary), unless such institution is subject to an agreement with the U.S. government (which may be in the form of compliance with an intergovernmental agreement with the U.S. government) to collect and provide to the U.S. tax authorities substantial information regarding U.S. account holders of such institution (which would include certain equity and debt holders of such institution, as well as certain account holders that are foreign entities with U.S. owners), or (ii) a foreign entity that is not a financial institution (as a beneficial owner or as an intermediary), unless such entity provides the withholding agent with a certification identifying the substantial U.S. owners of the entity, which generally includes any U.S. person who directly or indirectly owns more than 10% of the entity. While such withholding tax would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition on or after January 1, 2019 of our Common Stock, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate such withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Non-U.S. Holders are encouraged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of the FATCA withholding rules on their investment in our Common Stock. If a dividend payment is both subject to withholding under FATCA and subject to the withholding tax discussed above under “— Distributions,” the withholding under FATCA may be credited against, and therefore reduce, such other withholding tax.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
On August 11, 2020, we entered into a sales agreement, or Sales Agreement, with SVB Leerink LLC, or the Agent, under which we may issue and sell shares of our Common Stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through the Agent. The Sales Agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part.
Sales of our Common Stock, if any, will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at-the-market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market, on or through any other existing trading market for our Common Stock or to or through a market maker. The Agent will offer our Common Stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and the Agent. We will designate the maximum number or amount of our Common Stock to be sold through the Agent on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum number or amount together with the Agent. We may instruct the Agent not to sell our Common Stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Agent may suspend the offering of our Common Stock upon proper notice to the other party.
We will pay the Agent a commission, in cash, for their services in acting as agent in the sale of our Common Stock. The Agent will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.0% of the gross proceeds from each sale of our Common Stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse the Agent for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of their legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000, plus an additional amount of up to $15,000 in connection with determining our compliance with the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110, these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed sales compensation to the Agent in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to the Agent under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $125,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales of our Common Stock, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such Common Stock. The Agent will provide written confirmation to us no later than the next succeeding trading day on The Nasdaq Global Select Market after each day on which Common Stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number or amount of shares sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume-weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us from such sales. We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of Common Stock sold through the Agent under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the Agent in connection with the sales of Common Stock during the relevant period.
Settlement for sales of Common Stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Agent in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our Common Stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Agent may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Global Select Market to sell on our behalf all of the Common Stock requested to be sold by us. In connection with the sale of the Common Stock on our behalf, the Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agent against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
The offering of our Common Stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and the Agent may each terminate the Sales
 
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Agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice in each party’s sole discretion. The Agent may terminate the Sales Agreement at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material and adverse change in our business or financial condition that makes it impractical or inadvisable to market our Common Stock or to enforce contracts for the sale of our Common Stock.
The Agent and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. As sales agent, SVB Leerink LLC will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our Common Stock. Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol “REPL.” The transfer agent of our Common Stock is Computershare Trust Company N.A.
This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by the Agent and the Agent may distribute this prospectus electronically.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon by Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. The Agent is being represented in connection with this offering by Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act, and in accordance with the Exchange Act, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov). Our corporate website address is www.replimune.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document.
 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information contained in documents that we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede prior information. Any information so updated and superseded shall not be deemed, except as so updated and superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, and prior to the termination of the offering. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless specifically stated to the contrary, none of the information that is not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, will be incorporated by reference into, or otherwise included in, this prospectus:
1.
our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on June 3, 2020;
2.
our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 7, 2020;
3.
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 6, 2020 (other than with respect to Item 7.01 thereof), June 3, 2020 (other than with respect to Items  2.02 and 7.01 thereof), June 8, 2020, June 10, 2020, July 1, 2020, and July 22, 2020;
4.
the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on July 29, 2020, that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020; and
5.
our description of our common stock contained in the registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on July 17, 2018, and all amendments and reports updating such description.
We make available, free of charge, through our website at www.replimune.com under “Investor and Media” our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. You may also obtain, free of charge, a copy of any of these documents (other than exhibits to these documents unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into these documents or referred to in this prospectus) by writing or calling us at the following address and telephone number:
Replimune Group, Inc.
Attention: Investor Relations
500 Unicorn Park
Woburn MA 01801
+1 (781) 222-9600
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents:
 
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Up to $75,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_replimune-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
SVB Leerink
August   , 2020

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rPART II. INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.   Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered will be borne by us and are set forth in the following table. All amounts except the registration fee are estimated.
SEC registration fee
$ 45,430
FINRA filing fee
$ 47,161
Legal fees and expenses
(1)
Accounting fees and expenses
(1)
Printing expenses
(1)
Transfer and registrar fee
(1)
Miscellaneous
(1)
Total
(1)
(1)
These fees will be dependent on the type of securities offered and the number of offerings and, therefore, cannot be estimated at this time. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the estimated amount of expenses of any offerings of securities.
Item 15.   Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a corporation’s board of directors to grant, and authorizes a court to award, indemnity to officers, directors, and other corporate agents.
As permitted by Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, no director will be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director. Pursuant to Delaware law such protection would be not available for liability:

for any breach of a duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

for any transaction from which the director derived an improper benefit; or

for an act or omission for which the liability of a director is expressly provided by an applicable statute, including unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Our certificate of incorporation also provides that if Delaware law is amended after the approval by our stockholders of the certificate of incorporation to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of our directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.
Our bylaws further provide that we must indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Our bylaws also authorize us to indemnify any of our employees or agents and permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or agent for any liability arising out of his or her action in that capacity, whether or not Delaware law would otherwise permit indemnification.
In addition, our bylaws also provide that we are required to advance expenses to our directors and officers as incurred in connection with legal proceedings against them for which they may be indemnified and that the rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify each director and officer to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws, for expenses such as, among other
 
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things, attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, and settlement amounts incurred by the director or executive officer in any action or proceeding, including any action by or in our right, arising out of the person’s services as our director or executive officer or as the director or executive officer of any subsidiary of ours or any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request. We also have directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.
The SEC has taken the position that personal liability of directors for violation of the federal securities laws cannot be limited and that indemnification by us for any such violation is unenforceable. The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and other stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers as required by these indemnification provisions.
 
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Item 16.   Exhibits.
Exhibit
Number
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit Description
Form
Date
Number
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2 Sales Agreement, dated as of August 11, 2020, by and
between Replimune Group, Inc. and SVB Leerink LLC
3.1 Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Replimune Group, Inc. (conformed to include the Certificate of Amendment to the Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation filed on September 9, 2019). 3.1
3.2 Amended and Restated By-laws of Replimune Group,
Inc.
3.2
4.1 Form of Common Stock Certificate of the Registrant 4.1
4.2 Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated July 10, 2017, by and among the Registrant and the investors set forth therein. 4.2
4.3 Form of Pre-Funded Warrant (2019) 4.1
4.4 Form of Pre-Funded Warrant (2020) 4.1
4.5* Form of certificate of designation with respect to any preferred stock issued hereunder and the related form of preferred stock certificate
4.6 Form of Indenture to be entered into between registrant and trustee acceptable to the Replimune Group, Inc.
4.7* Form of debt security
4.8* Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.9* Form of Unit Agreement and Unit Certificate
5.1 Opinion of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
23.1 Consent of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.2 Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
24.1 Power of Attorney (incorporated by reference to the signature page hereto).
25.1** Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the
Indenture
*
To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a document filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated by reference herein.
**
To be filed separately pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and the appropriate rules and regulations thereunder.
 
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Item 17.   Undertakings.
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the
 
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registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(6)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(7)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.
(8)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(9)
If and when applicable, to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)2 of the Trust Indenture Act.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
II-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Woburn, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on this 11th day of August, 2020.
 REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
Date: August 11, 2020 By:
/s/ Philip Astley-Sparke
Philip Astley-Sparke
Chief Executive Officer and Director
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Philip Astley-Sparke and Jean Franchi his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent with full power of substitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and to sign any registration statement for the same offerings covered by the registration statement that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated under the Securities Act, and all post-effective amendments thereto, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming that all said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or his or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Name
Title
Date
/s/ PHILIP ASTLEY-SPARKE
Philip Astley-Sparke
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
August 11, 2020
/s/ JEAN FRANCHI
Jean Franchi
Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Secretary, and Compliance Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
August 11, 2020
/s/ ROBERT COFFIN
Robert Coffin
President and Chief Research & Development Officer and Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ KAPIL DHINGRA
Kapil Dhingra
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ HYAM LEVITSKY
Hyam Levitsky
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ PAOLO PUCCI
Paolo Pucci
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ JASON RHODES
Jason Rhodes
Director
August 11, 2020
 
II-6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Name
Title
Date
/s/ JOSEPH SLATTERY
Joseph Slattery
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ SANDER SLOOTWEG
Sander Slootweg
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ OTELLO STAMPACCHIA
Otello Stampacchia
Director
August 11, 2020
/s/ DIETER WEINAND
Dieter Weinand
Director
August 11, 2020
 
II-7

 

Exhibit 1.2

 

REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.001 par value per share)

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

August 11, 2020

 

SVB LEERINK LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Replimune Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Leerink LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

 

1.                   Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent up to $75.0 million of shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) and to be declared effective by the Commission, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

 

The Company has prepared and will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and (b) a prospectus or prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement specifically relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement at the time it becomes effective, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

 

 

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

2.                   Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agent hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the recipients from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that the parameters set forth in such subsequent Placement Notice supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

 

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3.                   Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom such written confirmation is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(bbb), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent, the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such purchase. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

 

4.                   Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)                The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

 

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(b)                Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing the Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.                   Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

 

(a)                Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)                Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in New York City not later than 12:00 P.M., New York City time, on the Business Day prior to the applicable Settlement Date.

 

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(c)                Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof is authorized to issue and sell from time to time, and notified to the Agent in writing, or (v) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Prospectus Supplement. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

6.                   Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement, and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”):

 

(a)                Registration Statement. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. At the time the Registration Statement was filed and originally becomes effective, the Company met and will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agent is named as the agent engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement. The Company has not received, and has no notice from the Commission of, any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No stop order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the base prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, has been issued, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. At the time of the initial filing of the Registration Statement, the Company paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the securities covered by the Registration Statement, including the Shares that may be sold pursuant to this Agreement, in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.

 

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(b)                Compliance with Registration Requirements. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and did not, does not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information (as defined below). The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, when so filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, and each Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) furnished to the Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares was identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its date and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will be filed on a timely basis and, when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no such Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)                Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

 

(d)                Emerging Growth Company. From May 3, 2018 through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

 

(e)                Distribution of Offering Material by the Company. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below).

 

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(f)                 Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except unaudited financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission, and any supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement present fairly in all material respects the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby.

 

(g)                No Material Adverse Change. Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any material change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that is either from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(h)                Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the Subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission.

 

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(i)                 Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Company’s quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the most recent fiscal quarter, as of the dates referred to therein (subject, in each case, to the issuance of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of share options and warrants disclosed as outstanding as of the date hereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the grant of options under existing share option plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus); all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including pre-emptive rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interests in the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such Subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

(j)                 Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), so qualifies, (ii) except, in each case, for any such matters as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its Subsidiaries or their results of operations or prospects. The descriptions of Company Stock Plans and the options or other rights granted thereunder set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly present the information required to be shown with respect to such Company Stock Plans and the options or other rights granted thereunder.

 

(k)                Due Authorization. The Company has full right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder; and all action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of this Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby has been duly and validly taken.

 

(l)                 Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

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(m)              The Placement Shares. The Placement Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby shall not be subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Placement Shares. When issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, the purchasers of the Placement Shares issued and sold hereunder will acquire good, marketable and valid title to such Placement Shares, free and clear of all pledges, liens, security interests, charges, claims or encumbrances. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any share capital, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for share capital or options, warrants or other rights to purchase share capital or any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any preferred shares of the Company. There are no restrictions upon the voting or transfer of the Common Stock under the Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company is a party or otherwise filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement.

 

(n)                Description of the Sales Agreement. This Agreement conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(o)                No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any applicable law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(p)                No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(q)                No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, license, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except for the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent.

 

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(r)                 Legal Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is or may be a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is or may be the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; to the best knowledge of the Company, no such Actions are threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document or described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus under the headings “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders,” “Risk Factors,” “Business—Intellectual Property,” “Business—Material License Agreements,” “Business—Government Regulation and Product Approval,” “Business—Legal Proceedings,” and “Description of Capital Stock,” insofar as such statements summarize legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings discussed therein, are accurate in all material respects and fair summaries of such legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings.

 

(s)                 Independent Accountants. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its Subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”) and as required by the Securities Act. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP has not been engaged by the Company to perform any “prohibited activities” or provided to the Company any “non-audit services” (as defined in Section 10A of the Exchange Act).

 

(t)                 Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the businesses of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)                Intellectual Property. The Company and its Subsidiaries own or license rights to use inventions, patent rights, trademarks, service marks, trade names, trade dress, domain names, copyrights, licenses, know-how, trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures (including all registrations and applications for registration of, and all goodwill associated with, any of the foregoing, as applicable) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company and its Subsidiaries, and, to the best knowledge of the Company, all other Intellectual Property used in or reasonably necessary for the conduct of their business as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, and, to the best knowledge of the Company, such Intellectual Property rights are valid and enforceable. To the best knowledge of the Company, the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries does not, and the proposed conduct of such business as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus will not, infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any Intellectual Property rights of any others. Except as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there is no pending or, to the Company’s best knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by any others (i) that the Company or any of its Subsidiaries infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates the Intellectual Property of others, or (ii) challenging the validity, enforceability, scope or ownership of any Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or their rights therein. To the best knowledge of the Company, no third party has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated any Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries. To the best knowledge of Company, none of the Intellectual Property used by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in the conduct of its business has been obtained or is being used by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries in material violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or any of its Subsidiaries. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Intellectual Property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries is solely owned by the Company or its Subsidiaries free and clear of any liens or encumbrances. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is subject to any judgment, order, writ, injunction or decree of any court or any federal, state, local, foreign or other governmental department, commission, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, domestic or foreign, or any arbitrator, nor has it entered into or is a party to any agreement made in settlement of any pending or threatened litigation, which materially restricts or impairs its use of any Intellectual Property. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable steps, in accordance with normal industry practice for a company of like size and resources, to maintain the confidentiality of all Intellectual Property the value of which to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is contingent upon maintaining the confidentiality thereof, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is aware of any material disclosure of such Intellectual Property other than to employees, representatives, independent contractors, collaborators, licensors, licensees, agents and advisors of the Company and its Subsidiaries, all of whom are bound by written obligations to maintain the confidentiality thereof. All founders, officers and other employees involved in the development of Intellectual Property for the Company and its Subsidiaries have signed confidentiality and invention assignment agreements or similar agreements for the transfer, assignment, and/or licensing of Intellectual Property with the Company and its Subsidiaries pursuant to which the Company and its Subsidiaries either (i) have obtained ownership of and are the exclusive owners of, or (ii) have a valid and unrestricted right to exploit, sufficient for the conduct of their business, such Intellectual Property. No founder, officer or, to the Company’s best knowledge, other employee of the Company is in or has been in material violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, non-disclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such founder, officer or employee’s relationship or activities with the Company or its Subsidiaries, or otherwise relates to rights in the Intellectual Property owned or purported to be owned by or licensed to the Company or its Subsidiaries.

 

(v)                Patents and Patent Applications. All patents and patent applications owned by, co-owned by, or exclusively licensed to the Company or under which the Company has rights (“Patents and Patent Applications”) have been duly and properly filed and are being diligently prosecuted and maintained; the parties prosecuting, or that have prosecuted, the Patents and Patent Applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the applicable patent office in connection with such Patents and Patent Applications; and to the Company’s best knowledge after due inquiry, there is no prior art that has rendered or may render any Patents and Patent Application invalid or unpatentable.

 

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(w)              No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

 

(x)                Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(y)                Taxes. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof except for taxes being contested in good faith and for which reserves in accordance with GAAP in the United States have been taken; and except as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or would reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(z)                Licenses and Permits. Except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries possess all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course, except where the failure to pay or file or where such revocation, modification or nonrenewal would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(aa)             No Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the best knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its or its Subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to any collective bargaining agreement.

 

(bb)            Certain Environmental Matters. (i) The Company and its Subsidiaries (A) are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment or natural resources (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (B) have obtained and are and have been in compliance with all permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required under any Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses; (C) are not a party to any order, decree or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Environmental Law; and (D) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its Subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (A) there is no proceeding that is pending, or, to the Company’s best knowledge, contemplated, against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (B) the Company and its Subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws that would reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company and its Subsidiaries, and (C) none of the Company or its Subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

 

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(cc)             Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Code) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including ERISA and the Code, in all material respects; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) no Plan is or ever has been subject to Section 302 of ERISA, Title IV of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code and no Plan is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA; (iv) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is subject to a favorable determination letter or advisory opinion, as applicable, from the IRS and no event has occurred and no condition exists, whether by action or by failure to act, that, to the Company’s best knowledge, is reasonably likely to result in the revocation of any such determination or opinion, as applicable; and (v) none of the following events has occurred or, to the Company’s best knowledge, is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its Subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its Subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (v) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(dd)            Disclosure Controls. The Company and its Subsidiaries maintain an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

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(ee)             Accounting Controls. The Company and its Subsidiaries maintain systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. The Company and its Subsidiaries maintain internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

 

(ff)               Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance and policies covering the Company and its Subsidiaries for product liability claims and clinical trial liability claims, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as are adequate to protect the Company and its Subsidiaries and their respective businesses; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

 

(gg)            Cyber Security; Data Protection. The Company and its Subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operations of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, and there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its Subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all applicable judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and all other applicable laws and regulations with respect to Personal Data for which any non-compliance with the same would be reasonably likely to create a material liability.

 

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(hh)            No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor, any director, officer or employee of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries nor, to the best knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made or taken an act in furtherance of an offer, promise or authorization of any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to any foreign or domestic government official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed, requested or taken an act in furtherance of any unlawful bribe or other unlawful benefit, including any rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company and its Subsidiaries have instituted, maintain and enforce, and will continue to maintain and enforce policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.

 

(ii)               Compliance with Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company or any of its Subsidiaries conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(jj)               No Conflicts with Sanctions Laws. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, directors, officers, or employees, nor, to the best knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury or the U.S. Department of State and including the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company or any of its Subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. Since their respective inceptions, the Company and its Subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

 

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(kk)            No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. No Subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such Subsidiary’s capital stock or similar ownership interest, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such Subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other Subsidiary of the Company.

 

(ll)               No Broker’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against any of them or the Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(mm)        No Registration Rights. No person has the right to require the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to register any securities for sale under the Securities Act by reason of the filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission or the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares, other than rights that have been validly waived.

 

(nn)            No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares.

 

(oo)            Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(pp)            Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith. No such statement was made with the knowledge of a director or executive officer of the Company that was false or misleading.

 

(qq)            Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

 

(rr)               Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans.

 

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(ss)              Status under the Securities Act. (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) at the time of the execution of this Agreement (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer.

 

(tt)               No Ratings. There are no debt securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.

 

(uu)            No Indebtedness. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have no outstanding indebtedness for borrowed money.

 

(vv)            No Contract Terminations. The Company has not sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew, any of the contracts or agreements described in the Prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, or any Incorporated Document, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or, to the Company’s best knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

 

(ww)         Preclinical and Clinical Trials. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) the preclinical and clinical studies and trials conducted by or, to the best knowledge of the Company after due inquiry, that were conducted on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its Subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its Subsidiaries have participated (collectively “Company Trials”), in each case including the Company’s studies and trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures and all applicable statutes and all applicable rules and regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Department of Health and Human Services and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which they are subject, including the European Medicines Agency (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”), and applicable current Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice requirements as detailed in applicable statutes, rules and regulations of an applicable Regulatory Authority; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the Company Trials, including the results of the Company Trials, are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results of the Company Trials described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; (iv) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s best knowledge after due inquiry, any of its collaboration partners, have received any written notices, written correspondence or other written communications from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of any Company Trial that is described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such Company Trials, and, to the Company’s best knowledge after due inquiry, there are no reasonable grounds for the same; (v) to the Company’s best knowledge after due inquiry, the Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in a Company Trial; (vi) in using or disclosing patient information received by the Company in connection with the Company Trials, the Company has complied in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements; and (vii) to the Company’s best knowledge after due inquiry, none of the Company Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator by any Regulatory Authority or has been found by any Regulatory Authority to have engaged in scientific misconduct.

 

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(xx)            Product Candidates. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company: (i) has operated and currently operates its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s product candidates; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other written correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator, Regulatory Authority or other governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and the Company is not in violation, in any material respect, of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any of the Regulatory Authorities or any other third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in material violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Regulatory Authorities or any other third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding that would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; (v) has not received written notice that any of the Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Regulatory Authorities is considering such action that would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; (vi) is not a party to or have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Regulatory Authority; and (vii)(A) has not, nor have any of its directors, officers or, to the Company’s best knowledge, employees, been excluded, suspended or debarred by a Regulatory Authority from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research or (B), to the best knowledge of the Company after due inquiry, is not, and none of its directors, officers or employees is, subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion by a Regulatory Authority. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” means, to the extent applicable to the Company, all health care laws applicable to the Company, including: Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq.; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the Exclusion Laws, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations, in each case of the foregoing laws and regulations, as amended from time to time.

 

(yy)            Manufacturing. To the Company’s best knowledge, the contract manufacturing facilities and GMP operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities.

 

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(zz)             Regulatory Filings. The Company has not failed to file with the Regulatory Authorities any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission with respect to the Company’s product candidates that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; all such filings, declarations, reports or submissions were in material compliance with the applicable Health Care Laws when filed; and no material deficiencies regarding compliance with applicable law have been asserted by any Regulatory Authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, reports or submissions.

 

(aaa)          Exchange Act Requirements; Stock Exchange Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq. The Company has filed a Notification of Listing of Additional Shares with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

(bbb)        Agent Transactions. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect; provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent, except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent.

 

(ccc)          No Other Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(ddd)        Non-Affiliate Shares; Shell Company. As of the close of trading on Nasdaq on August 10, 2020, the aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was approximately $504.3 million (calculated by multiplying (x) the price at which the common equity of the Company was last sold on Nasdaq on August 10, 2020 by (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares outstanding on August 10, 2020). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously.

 

(eee)          Independent Directors. Each of the independent directors (or independent director nominees, once appointed, if applicable) named in the Registration Statement and Prospectus satisfies the independence standards established by Nasdaq and, with respect to members of the Company’s audit committee, the enhanced independence standards contained in Rule 10A-3(b)(1) promulgated by the Commission under the Exchange Act.

 

(fff)            No Integration. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act) has, prior to the date hereof, made any offer or sale of any securities which could be “integrated” (within the meaning of the Securities Act) with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder.

 

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Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or its counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Agent.

 

7.                   Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

 

(a)                Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule); (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing notwithstanding the Agent’s objection (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed.

 

(b)                Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

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(c)                Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

 

(d)                Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

 

(e)                Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)                 Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

 

(g)                Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agent in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agent except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agent and its counsel of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Shares, (vii) the fees and associated expenses of the Agent’s outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department in an amount not to exceed $15,000 (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above and in addition to the fees and disbursements referred to in clause (viii) below), and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s outside legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000 (in addition to the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above).

 

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(h)                Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i)                 Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

 

(j)                 Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

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(k)                Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent, its affiliates, agents and counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

(l)                 Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

 

(m)               Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

 

(i)                 amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

(ii)                files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii)               files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv)               files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agent requests such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within five Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within five Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

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(n)                Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, counsel to the Company, or such other counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(o)                Intellectual Property Opinion. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion of J.A. Kemp & Co., counsel for the Company with respect to intellectual property matters, or such other intellectual property counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Intellectual Property Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion letter is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such written opinion for subsequent Representation Dates, Intellectual Property Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(o) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such opinion letter (except that statements in such prior opinion letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(p)                Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(p); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

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(q)                Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and Subsidiaries not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(r)                 Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(s)                 Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental certificates, authorizations or permits required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(t)                 Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(u)                Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(v)                No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agent, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as agent) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(w)               Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

 

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(x)                 Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain such controls and other procedures, including those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to it by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

 

(y)                Emerging Growth Company. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(z)                 Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Date, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company will take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

 

(aa)              General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3. If, from and after the date of this Agreement, the Company is no longer eligible to use Form S-3 (including pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6.) at the time it files with the Commission an annual report on Form 10-K or any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, then it shall promptly notify the Agent and, within two Business Days after the date of filing of such annual report on Form 10-K or amendment to the Registration Statement, the Company shall file a new prospectus supplement with the Commission reflecting the number of shares of Common Stock available to be offered and sold by the Company under this Agreement pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any such prospectus supplement for up to 30 days if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect or pending during such time. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agent to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

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(bb)              Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agent against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(cc)              Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

 

8.                  Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agent in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)                Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

 

(b)                Prospectus Supplement. The Company shall have filed with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act not later than the Commission’s close of business on the second Business Day following the date of this Agreement.

 

(c)                No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(d)                No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(e)                Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(f)                 Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable, on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable.

 

(g)                Agent’s Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received from Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP, counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

 

(h)                Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).

 

(i)                 Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(j)                 Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, certifying as to (i) the amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, (ii) the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

 

(k)                No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

 

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(l)                 Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agent with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested.

 

(m)               Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

 

(n)                Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

 

(o)                FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

 

(p)                No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.                   Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)                Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, in each case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any and all investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with this Section 9), any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened)), as and when incurred, to which the Agent, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties or agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

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(b)                Agent Indemnification. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)                Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d)                Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

 

(e)                Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agent, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agent and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agent will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.                Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.                Termination.

 

(a)                The Agent shall have the right, by giving notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m), Section 7(n), Section 7(o) or Section 7(p), the Agent’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition to the Agent’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

 

(b)                The Company shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

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(c)                The Agent shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)                Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)                This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(f)                 Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agent any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agent’s expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

12.                Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail: peter.fry@svbleerink.com

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail: stuart.nayman@svbleerink.com

 

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

500 Unicorn Park

Woburn, MA 01801

Attention: Jean Franchi

E-mail: jean.franchi@replimune.com

 

33

 

 

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP

Condor House

5-10 St. Paul’s Churchyard

London, EC4M 8AL

United Kingdom

Attention: Timothy J. Corbett

E-mail: timothy.corbett@morganlewis.com

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

13.                Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agent without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

 

14.                Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.                Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

 

34

 

 

16.                GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

17.                Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

18.                Construction.

 

(a)                The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

(b)                Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

 

(c)                The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

 

35

 

 

(d)                Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

 

(e)                References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

 

(f)                 References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

(g)                The term “Subsidiary” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

19.                Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

 

20.                Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)                the Agent has been retained to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agent has acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agent has no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

 

(b)                the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)                neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

(d)                the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

(e)                the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

 

36

 

 

21.                Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

22.                Use of Information. The Agent may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

 

23.                Agent’s Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agent’s Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the first and second sentences of paragraph 8 under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement.

 

24.                Termination of Existing Sales Agreement. Effective as of immediately prior to the execution of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent hereby terminate the Sales Agreement dated as of August 8, 2019, as amended (the “Existing Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and the Agent, pursuant to Section 11(e) of the Existing Sales Agreement.

 

25.                Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and the Agent or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

For purposes of this Agreement, (A) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k); (B) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b); (C) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable; and (D) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

37

 

 

All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

38

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  Replimune Group, Inc.
   
  By:  /s/ Jean Franchi
    Name: Jean Franchi
    Title: Chief Financial Officer

 

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]

 

 

 

 

  ACCEPTED as of the date
  first-above written:
   
  SVB LEERINK LLC
   
  By: /s/ Peter M. Fry
    Name: Peter M. Fry
    Title: Head of Alternative Equities

 

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

 
From: [                                     ]
  [TITLE]
  Replimune Group, Inc.
Cc: [                                     ]
To: SVB Leerink LLC
Subject: SVB Leerink—At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated [●], 2020 (the “Agreement”), by and between Replimune Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and SVB Leerink LLC (“SVB Leerink”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that SVB Leerink sell up to [ ] shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $      per share[; provided that no more than [ ] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

  

The Company

 

Robert Coffin (rob@replimune.com)

Philip-Astley Sparke (philip@replimune.com)

Jean Franchi (jean.franchi@replimune.com)

 

SVB Leerink

 

Dan Dubin, M.D. (dan.dubin@svbleerink.com)

Sean Pitt (sean.pitt@svbleerink.com)

ATM@svbleerink.com

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

The Company shall pay SVB Leerink compensation in cash equal to 3% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement of which this Schedule 3 forms a part.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE

  

Each of Philip Astley-Sparke, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer of Replimune Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Jean Franchi, the duly qualified and elected Chief Financial Officer of the Company, does hereby certify in such individual’s respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated August 11, 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and SVB Leerink LLC, that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)       The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof.

 

(ii)      The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

(iii)     As of the date hereof, (A) the Registration Statement complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, (B) the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (C) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading or for clauses (A) and (B) above, to be true and correct.

 

(iv)     There has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented to the date hereof.

 

(v)      The Company does not possess any material non-public information.

 

(vi)     The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

 

 

 

 

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

   
  By:  
    Name: Philip Astley-Sparke
    Title: Chief Executive Officer
    Date:
   
  By:  
    Name: Jean Franchi
    Title: Chief Financial Officer
    Date:

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.6

 

REPLIMUNE GROUP, Inc.

 

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [●]

 

[●]

 

Trustee

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

 

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS

 
SECTION 1.01.   Certain Terms Defined 1
SECTION 1.02.   Other Definitions 5
SECTION 1.03.   Rules of Construction 5
   

ARTICLE 2

 

SECURITY FORMS

 
SECTION 2.01.   Forms Generally 5
SECTION 2.02.   Guarantees by Guarantor; Form of Guarantee; Release of Guarantee 5
SECTION 2.03.   Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication 7
   

ARTICLE 3

 

ISSUE, EXECUTION, FORM AND REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES

 
SECTION 3.01.   Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series 8
SECTION 3.02.   Authentication and Delivery of Securities 10
SECTION 3.03.   Execution of Securities 10
SECTION 3.04.   Certificate of Authentication 10
SECTION 3.05.   Denomination, Currency and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest 10
SECTION 3.06.   Global Security Legend 11
SECTION 3.07.   Registration, Transfer and Exchange 12
SECTION 3.08.   Book-Entry Provisions for Global Securities 13
SECTION 3.09.   Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 14
SECTION 3.10.   Cancellation of Securities 14
SECTION 3.11.   Temporary Securities 15
SECTION 3.12.   CUSIP and ISIN Numbers 15
   

ARTICLE 4

 

CERTAIN COVENANTS

 
SECTION 4.01.   Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest on Securities 15
SECTION 4.02.   Maintenance of Office or Agency 15
SECTION 4.03.   Money for Securities Payments to be Held in Trust 15
SECTION 4.04.   Existence 16
SECTION 4.05.   Statement by Officers as to Default 16
SECTION 4.06.   Waiver of Certain Covenants 16
   

ARTICLE 5

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND HOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 
SECTION 5.01.   Events of Default 17
SECTION 5.02.   Acceleration. 18
SECTION 5.03.   Other Remedies 18
SECTION 5.04.   Waiver of Past Defaults 18
SECTION 5.05.   Control by Majority 19
SECTION 5.06.   Limitation on Suits 19
SECTION 5.07.   Rights of Holders to Receive Payment 19
SECTION 5.08.   Collection Suit by Trustee 19
SECTION 5.09.   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 20
SECTION 5.10.   Priorities 20
SECTION 5.11.   Undertaking for Costs 20
SECTION 5.12.   Restoration of Rights and Remedies 20
SECTION 5.13.   Rights and Remedies Cumulative 21
SECTION 5.14.   Delay or Omission Not Waiver 21

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(continued)

 

ARTICLE 6

 

THE TRUSTEE

 
SECTION 6.01.   Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default 21
SECTION 6.02.   Certain Rights of the Trustee 22
SECTION 6.03.   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof 23
SECTION 6.04.   Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. 23
SECTION 6.05.   Moneys Held by Trustee 23
SECTION 6.06.   Notice of Default 23
SECTION 6.07.   Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim 24
SECTION 6.08.   Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers’ Certificate, Etc. 24
SECTION 6.09.   Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee 24
SECTION 6.10.   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. 24
SECTION 6.11.   Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 25
SECTION 6.12.   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee 26
SECTION 6.13.   Preferential Collection of Claims 26
SECTION 6.14.   Communications with the Trustee 27
SECTION 6.15.   Paying Agent/Registrar 27
   

ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE HOLDERS

 
SECTION 7.01.   Evidence of Action Taken by Holders 27
SECTION 7.02.   Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities; Record Date 27
SECTION 7.03.   Who May Be Deemed Owners of Securities 27
SECTION 7.04.   Securities Owned by Company Deemed Not Outstanding 28
SECTION 7.05.   Record Date for Action by Holders 28
SECTION 7.06.   Right of Revocation of Action Taken 28
   

ARTICLE 8

 

MEETINGS OF HOLDERS

 
SECTION 8.01.   Purposes for Which Meeting May Be Called 28
SECTION 8.02.   Manner of Calling Meetings; Record Date 29
SECTION 8.03.   Call of Meeting by Company or Holders 29
SECTION 8.04.   Who May Attend and Vote at Meeting 29
SECTION 8.05.   Regulations 29
SECTION 8.06.   Manner of Voting at Meetings and Record to be Kept 30
SECTION 8.07.   Exercise of Rights of Trustee and Holders Not to be Hindered or Delayed 30

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(continued)

 

ARTICLE 9

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 
SECTION 9.01.   Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders 30
SECTION 9.02.   With Consent of Holders 31
SECTION 9.03.   Effect of Supplemental Indenture 32
SECTION 9.04.   Documents to Be Given to Trustee; Compliance with TIA 33
SECTION 9.05.   Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures 33
   

ARTICLE 10

 

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR SALE OF ASSETS

 
 
SECTION 10.01.   When the Company May Merge, Etc. 33
SECTION 10.02.   Successor Person Substituted 33
SECTION 10.03.   Opinion of Counsel to Trustee 34
   

ARTICLE 11

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

 
SECTION 11.01.   Applicability of Article 34
SECTION 11.02.   Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions 34
SECTION 11.03.   Payment of Securities Called for Redemption 35
   

ARTICLE 12

 

DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

 
SECTION 12.01.   Applicability of the Article; Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 35
SECTION 12.02.   Legal Defeasance and Discharge 35
SECTION 12.03.   Covenant Defeasance 36
SECTION 12.04.   Conditions to Legal or Covenant Defeasance 36
SECTION 12.05.   Deposited Money and Government Securities to be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions 37
SECTION 12.06.   Repayment to the Company or Guarantor 37
SECTION 12.07.   Reinstatement 37
   

ARTICLE 13

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 
SECTION 13.01.   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 38
SECTION 13.02.   Application of Trust Money 39

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(continued)

 

ARTICLE 14

 

HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE, COMPANY AND GUARANTORS

 
SECTION 14.01.   Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders 39
SECTION 14.02.   Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders 39
SECTION 14.03.   Reports by the Trustee 40
SECTION 14.04.   Reports by the Company and Guarantors 40
   

ARTICLE 15

 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 
SECTION 15.01.    Incorporators, Stockholders, Members, Partners, Officers, Managers and Directors of Company or any Guarantor Exempt from Individual Liability 40
SECTION 15.02.   Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders 41
SECTION 15.03.   Successors and Assigns of Company or Guarantor Bound by Indenture 41
SECTION 15.04.   Notices, Etc., to Trustee, the Company and Guarantors 41
SECTION 15.05.   Notices to Holders 41
SECTION 15.06.   Officers’ Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein 41
SECTION 15.07.   Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays 42
SECTION 15.08.   Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture with Trust Indenture Act 42
SECTION 15.09.   Conflict of Any Provision of Securities with Indenture 42
SECTION 15.10.   New York Law to Govern 42
SECTION 15.11.   Waiver of Jury Trial 43
SECTION 15.12.   Consent to Jurisdiction and Service 43
SECTION 15.13.   Third Party Beneficiaries 43
SECTION 15.14.   Counterparts 43
SECTION 15.15.   Effect of Headings, Table of Contents 43
SECTION 15.16.   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 43
SECTION 15.17.   Severability 43
SECTION 15.18.   Patriot Act Compliance 43
SECTION 15.19.   Force Majeure 43

 

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