tm2114346-1_10k - none - 15.2813444s
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021
OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to
Commission file number 001-38596
REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
82-2082553
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
500 Unicorn Park Drive
3rd Floor
Woburn MA 01801
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(781) 222-9600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
REPL
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (Nasdaq Global
Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☒
Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $500.2 million, based on the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock on September 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
There were 46,608,958 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of May 17, 2021.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The registrant intends to file a definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021. Portions of such definitive proxy statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended March 31, 2021
Table of Contents
Page No.
PART I 1
1
27
63
63
63
63
PART II 64
64
64
64
80
81
81
81
PART III 83
83
83
83
83
84
PART IV 85
85
85
SIGNATURES
 
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Special note regarding forward-looking statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include, among other things:

the timing, progress, and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates, including the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;

our ability to obtain additional funding as necessary;

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of our Biologics License Application, or BLA, and filing for, and final approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, of, RP1 or any of our other product candidates;

the timing, scope, or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;

our ability to develop our product candidates for use in combination with other checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti-PD-1;

our ability to develop and advance any future product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations for RP1 and our other product candidates if approved for commercial use;

the costs of operating our in-house manufacturing facility;

our estimates regarding expenses and capital requirements;

the implementation of our business model and our strategic plans for our business, RP1 and our other product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of RP1 and our other product candidates;

the potential benefits of and our ability to establish or maintain future collaborations or strategic relationships;

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering RP1 and our other product candidates, claims others may make regarding rights in our intellectual property, and any potential infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any third-party intellectual property rights;

our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology;

the impact of laws and regulations;

the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, or COVID-19, as a global pandemic and related public health issues;
 
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012; and

the other risks and uncertainties described under “Risk factors.”
The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except to the extent required by applicable law. You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
 
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
Item 1.
Business
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company committed to applying our leading expertise in the field of oncolytic immunotherapy to transform the lives of cancer patients. We use our proprietary Immulytic platform to design and develop product candidates that are intended to maximally activate the immune system against cancer.
Oncolytic immunotherapy is an emerging drug class, which we intend to establish as the second cornerstone of immune-based cancer treatments, alongside checkpoint blockade. Oncolytic immunotherapy exploits the ability of certain viruses to selectively replicate in and directly kill tumors, as well as induce a potent, patient-specific, anti-tumor immune response. Our product candidates incorporate multiple mechanisms of action into a practical “off-the-shelf” approach that is intended to maximize the immune response against a patient’s cancer and to offer significant advantages over personalized vaccine approaches. We believe that the bundling of multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer into single therapies will simplify the development path of our product candidates, while also improving patient outcomes at a lower cost to the healthcare system than the use of multiple different drugs.
The foundation of our Immulytic platform consists of a proprietary, engineered strain of herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, that has been “armed” with a fusogenic glycoprotein intended to substantially increase anti-tumor activity. Our Immulytic platform enables us to incorporate various genes into HSV-1 that are intended to further augment the inherent properties of HSV-1 in order to both directly destroy tumor cells and induce an anti-tumor immune response. We currently have three product candidates in our development pipeline: RP1, our lead product candidate, RP2 and RP3.
We are conducting a number of clinical trials of RP1, both as a monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, with a focus on immune-responsive tumors. We are actively enrolling patients in a randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial of RP1 with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, or CSCC, RP1’s lead indication, or CERPASS or the CERPASS trial, in agreement with our partner Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Regeneron. CERPASS is a registration-directed clinical trial evaluating RP1 in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron, versus cemiplimab alone. CERPASS is currently being amended, in agreement with Regeneron, to include two independent primary endpoints, complete response (CR) rate and overall response rate (ORR), rather than only ORR, and to reduce the sample size from 240 to 180 patients. Regeneron has granted to us a non-exclusive royalty-free license to cemiplimab for use in this trial, is funding one-half of the clinical trial costs, and is supplying cemiplimab at no cost. If the CERPASS trial generates compelling clinical data demonstrating the benefits of the combined treatment, we believe the data could support a filing with regulatory authorities seeking marketing approval. We expect the primary data read-out from this Phase 2 CERPASS trial in 2022.
We continue our collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS, under which it has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and is supplying at no cost, its anti-PD-1 therapy, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP1 in a multi-cohort Phase 1/2 clinical trial, or IGNYTE or the IGNYTE trial. This trial includes a registration directed Phase 2 expansion cohort enrolling 125 patients with anti-PD-1 failed cutaneous melanoma who are being treated with RP1 in combination with nivolumab. We initiated this cohort after completing enrollment in a prior Phase 2 cohort in the same clinical trial of approximately 30 patients with melanoma, which demonstrated the safety and clinical activity of the combination of RP1 and nivolumab in patients with melanoma who failed prior anti-PD-1 when given alone or in combination with CTLA-4 blockade. In March 2021 we held a Type B meeting with the FDA to discuss the design of this cohort in the IGNYTE trial. In this meeting, the FDA expressed that while a randomized controlled clinical trial would always be preferred for registration purpose, that in this patient population with no clear standard of care, if the clinical data is sufficiently compelling then the data could be considered for submission by the FDA under the accelerated approval pathway. The FDA also indicated that a randomized confirmatory trial would also be needed as is required under the accelerated approval pathway. The design of the confirmatory trial is intended to be discussed with the FDA prior to a BLA submission. In connection with a presentation at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, or SITC, in October 2020 we announced updated clinical
 
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
data from our multi-cohort Phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating RP1 in combination with nivolumab in patients with melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. As reported, RP1 in combination with nivolumab has continued to be well tolerated, and we believe demonstrates continued promising anti-tumor activity in patients with skin cancers, including in patients with anti-PD-1 failed melanoma, and in patients with CSCC. We expect that the primary data read-out from the registration directed Phase 2 melanoma cohort will be in 2022.
We continue to enroll patients in other IGNYTE Phase 2 cohorts under our collaboration with BMS in which we are evaluating RP1 in combination with nivolumab. Currently, enrollment is ongoing in a 45 patient cohort with non-melanoma skin cancer (including the recent addition of 15 patients who have failed prior anti-PD-1 therapy), a 15 patient cohort with microsatellite instability high, or (MSI-H)/dMMR, tumors, and a 30 patient cohort with anti-PD(L)-1 failed non-small cell lung cancer, or NSCLC. We recently began dosing a patient in the NSCLC cohort. Due in part to COVID-19 related disruptions, we now expect the original 30 patient non-melanoma skin cancer cohort to be fully accrued by mid-2021. We continue to accumulate data in the MSI-H/dMMR cohort and expect to decide whether to pursue MSI-H/dMMR tumors into registration-directed development by the end of 2021.
We have also opened for enrollment a Phase 1b clinical trial of single agent RP1 in solid organ transplant recipients with CSCC, or ARTACUS or the ARTACUS trial, which we believe to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients). We are currently enrolling patients in the ARTACUS trial to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant recipients with recurrent CSCC and are currently targeting about 30 patients for this trial. Enrollment in this clinical trial has been impacted by COVID-19, as the patient population is severely immune-compromised and considered very high risk. Nevertheless, we have begun dosing patients and expect to present initial data from this clinical trial in the second half of the year.
We are also developing additional product candidates, RP2 and RP3, that have been further engineered to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and are intended to address additional tumor types, including traditionally less immune responsive tumor types. In addition to the expression of GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF as in RP1, RP2 has been engineered to express an antibody-like molecule intended to block the activity of CTLA-4, a protein that inhibits the full activation of an immune response, including to tumors. RP3, on the other hand, does not include the expression of GM-CSF but has been engineered with the intent to further stimulate an anti-tumor immune response through activation of immune co-stimulatory pathways through expression of the ligands for CD40 and 4-1BBL, as well as anti-CTLA-4 and GALV-GP R(-).
We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 alone and in combination with nivolumab in the second half of 2019. This clinical trial is also being conducted as part of our collaboration with BMS, under which BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and will supply at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP2. We and BMS agreed to increase the number of patients in the combination part of this clinical trial from 12 to 30 patients. In October 2020, we presented positive data from the single agent RP2 portion of this clinical trial that showed deep and durable responses, including demonstration of tumor response in uninjected lesions and in patients with difficult to treat advanced cancers. This data supports the hypothesis that anti-CTLA-4 delivered intra-tumorally through oncolytic virus replication, with accompanying antigen release and presentation, can provide potent anti-tumor effects. Following the monotherapy phase of this clinical trial with RP2, enrollment in the expansion phase using RP2 in combination with nivolumab is currently underway and we expect to present initial data in mid-2021.
We have obtained clearance from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom to enter clinical development with RP3 and in December 2020 we initiated dosing in this clinical trial. This Phase 1 clinical trial is designed to evaluate RP3 alone and combined with anti-PD-1 therapy in advanced solid tumor patients. Initial data from this trial is expected to be presented in the second half of 2021.
RP1, RP2 and RP3 are administered by direct injection into solid tumors, guided either visually or by ultrasound, computerized tomography, or CT, or other imaging methods. We believe that direct injection maximizes virus-mediated tumor cell death, provides the most efficient delivery of virus-encoded immune activating proteins into the tumor with the goal of activating systemic immunity, and limits the systemic toxicities that could be associated with intravenous administration. Activation of systemic immunity
 
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
through local administration is intended to lead to the induction of anti-tumor immune responses leading to clinical response of tumors that have not themselves been injected.
Our approach — Oncolytic immunotherapy
Our product candidates are designed to induce a robust immune response against a patient’s cancer and turn immunologically “cold” tumors “hot.” To achieve this objective, we use oncolytic immunotherapies that combine multiple mechanisms of action in a single product candidate. We believe our product candidates will initiate or enhance an immune response in patients with no or minimal pre-existing cancer immunity, including to tumor neo-antigens, and thereby increase the effectiveness of immune checkpoint blockade therapies.
Our product candidates are intended to act at several key points in the pathways involved in the initiation of an immune response. Following direct injection into tumors, our viruses replicate in cancer cells and then lyse, or break them open, releasing tumor antigens, including neo-antigens specific to the patient, which could otherwise be hidden from the immune system. This process of necrotic cell death releases intra-cellular markers of “danger,” the danger associated molecular patterns, or DAMPs, while the virus produces pathogen associated markers of danger, or PAMPs. These trigger various pathways of the innate immune system, including the STING pathway and pathways mediated through toll-like receptors, or TLRs, each resulting in the production of interferon. Innate immune activation would be expected to itself provide anti-tumor effects, as interferon activates natural killer cells which can destroy tumor cells. Innate immune activation would also be expected to help trigger adaptive anti-cancer immunity, in which antigen presenting cells, or APCs, are attracted to the injected tumor. APCs internalize cancer antigens, including neo-antigens, and traffic back to the draining lymph nodes where they present the antigens to T cells. Primed with the antigens, these T cells then proliferate and disperse systemically to seek and destroy cancer cells with the same antigen profile throughout the body, resulting in the potential destruction of distant tumor deposits.
To further augment these intended effects, our product candidates are intended to genetically encode and express multiple potent, cell-killing and immune-stimulating proteins in the tumor — in other words, our product candidates are “armed” with these therapeutic genes.
We believe that our ability to incorporate multiple mechanisms of action into a practical “off-the-shelf” approach to initiating or enhancing an anti-tumor immune response, including to neo-antigens, will offer significant advantages over the various approaches to immune activation that are currently in development, including personalized vaccine treatments. Tumor neo-antigens are uniquely present in tumors, rather than normal tissue, because they result from the genetic changes that occur as cancer develops. Unlike the antigens present in normal tissue, the immune system identifies neo-antigens as foreign. As a result, the immune system is able to mount an immune response to tumor neo-antigens in the same way that it would to the antigens contained in disease-causing micro-organisms, which the immune system also identifies as foreign. Researchers believe immune responses to tumor neo-antigens are particularly important in the immune system’s ability to combat cancer, and as a consequence various “personalized vaccine” approaches to generating immune responses to tumor neo-antigens are in development. These approaches are generally both expensive and time consuming because a vaccine cannot be designed and manufactured until a tumor biopsy is taken and analyzed in the laboratory to identify the mutated tumor antigens that will be targeted by the treatment. We also believe that our “off-the-shelf” approach may offer significant advantages over other approaches to anti-cancer immune activation that only target a single pathway of the immune system, as is the case with most of the other immuno-oncology therapies currently under development. Importantly, our product candidates are intended to maximally activate an immune response against cancer, which we believe is the missing element needed to allow anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy to treat more patients and tumor types, unlike some other therapies that are intended to act by blocking additional defense mechanisms against an anti-tumor immune response once it has been initiated.
 
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Our Immulytic platform and product candidates
Our current product candidate pipeline is summarized in the table below:
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2114346d1-fc_pipeline4clr.jpg]
The foundation of our oncolytic immunotherapy product candidates, which we call our Immulytic platform, consists of a proprietary strain of HSV-1 that we have engineered to replicate selectively in tumors and to express a fusogenic glycoprotein, a protein that triggers the fusion of the membranes between cells. HSV-1 is both highly cell lytic and inflammatory, and also has a large carrying capacity, which makes it possible to incorporate multiple genes encoding therapeutic proteins. We believe our combination of HSV-1 with the expression of the fusogenic glycoprotein increases the natural ability of HSV-1 to kill tumor cells and to induce an anti-tumor immune response. The fusogenic functionality of our product candidates is intended not only to increase the number of tumor cells that are killed, but also to cause highly immunogenic death of tumor cells. We believe that these factors will increase the potency of the systemic anti-tumor immune response that is generated by our product candidates. With the intention of further amplifying the anti-tumor response, we have also engineered product candidates that express a range of additional potent, immune activating genes encoding therapeutic proteins in tumors.
Our lead product candidate, RP1, serves as the base from which our additional product candidates, RP2 and RP3, are being developed to express additional therapeutic proteins. We believe that our sequential development approach of further enhancing our product candidates with additional therapeutic proteins reduces clinical risk, as we are able to study the safety profile of each therapeutic protein prior to moving to the next product candidate with an additional therapeutic protein that is intended to provide more potent anti-tumor immune effects.
Lead product candidate: RP1
Our lead product candidate, RP1, is a selectively replicating version of HSV-1 that expresses GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF. RP1 has the following properties:

we have deleted the ICP34.5-encoding gene, which enables tumor-selective virus replication;

we have deleted the ICP47-encoding gene, which is intended to prevent the inhibition of the antigen presentation pathway otherwise caused by ICP47 binding to the transporter associated with antigen presentation. ICP47 deletion is also intended to result in the increased and earlier expression of the HSV-1 US11 gene by placing the HSV-1 US11 gene under the control of ICP47 promoter which we believe will increase virus replication in tumors without reducing tumor-selectivity; and
 
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

we have inserted the sequences for GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF, resulting in the expression of these therapeutic proteins with the intention of increasing both the direct tumor cell killing and the potency of the anti-tumor immune response that is induced.
We have developed RP1 as a monotherapy and for use in combination with immune checkpoint blockade therapy, particularly therapies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1. We believe that the robust release of tumor antigens and the highly immunogenic tumor cell death intended to be caused by RP1 will further increase the previously observed synergy between oncolytic viruses and immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
Clinical Trials in RP1
We are currently conducting the CERPASS trial, which is a randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial testing RP1 in combination with cemiplimab versus cemiplimab alone in patients with CSCC. The CERPASS trial is being conducted under a collaboration agreement with Regeneron, pursuant to which Regeneron has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to cemiplimab for use in the clinical trial and is funding one-half of the clinical trial costs and supplying cemiplimab at no cost. The CERPASS trial is also currently being amended, in agreement with Regeneron, to include two independent primary endpoints, complete response (CR) rate and overall response rate (ORR), rather than only ORR, and to reduce the sample size from 240 to 180 patients. In addition to our clinical trial sites in Australia and the United States, we have opened or are in the process of opening clinical trial sites in five European countries and Canada. If compelling clinical data are generated demonstrating the benefits of the combination treatment in this clinical trial, we believe the data from the CERPASS Phase 2 trial could support a filing with regulatory authorities for marketing approval. We expect the primary data readout from the CERPASS trial in 2022.
We are further conducting the IGNYTE trial, which is a multi-cohort Phase 1/2 clinical trial of RP1 in collaboration with BMS. Pursuant to our collaboration, BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and is supplying at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP1 in the IGNYTE trial. We have completed enrollment of the Phase 1 part of the IGNYTE trial, in which we enrolled 36 patients with advanced heavily pre-treated cancers who failed available therapies. Based on the data, which we believe showed a favorable safety profile for both RP1 alone and in combination with nivolumab, the RP1 dosing regimen moved forward into Phase 2 development with an initial dose of up to 10mL of 1x106 pfu/ml followed by subsequent doses of up to 10mL of 1x107 pfu/ml. In the combination portion of the Phase 1 part of the IGNYTE trial, anti-tumor activity was demonstrated in multiple patients with a variety of solid tumor types, particularly in CSCC and melanoma. Of particular note, substantial tumor reduction was observed in a number of patients after just the first dose of RP1, but before the introduction of nivolumab two weeks later and responses were seen in injected and uninjected tumors. Biomarker data further confirmed the mechanism of action of RP1 alone and in combination with nivolumab, suggesting that RP1 provides broad anti-tumor immune activation. Increases in CD8 T Cells and PD-L1 were seen in serial tumor biopsies across tumor types, suggesting that the kinetics of virus detection is indicative of robust virus replication in tumors occurs.
The Phase 2 part of this clinical trial was originally designed to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in combination with nivolumab in four 30 patient cohorts. Those currently include cohorts of patients with melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancers, non-small cell lung cancer and MSI-H/dMMR tumors. We have completed enrollment in the Phase 2 part of the IGNYTE trial in the cohort of 30 patients with melanoma. As a result of what we believe to be encouraging clinical data in this patient group with RP1 combined with nivolumab, we are enrolling a cohort of 125 patients with anti-PD-1 failed melanoma. In March 2021 we held a Type B meeting with the FDA to discuss the design of this cohort in the IGNYTE trial. In this meeting, the FDA expressed that while a randomized controlled clinical trial would always be preferred for registration purpose, that in this patient population with no clear standard of care, if the clinical data is sufficiently compelling then the data could be considered for submission by the FDA under the accelerated approval pathway. The FDA also indicated that a randomized confirmatory trial would also be needed as is required under the accelerated approval pathway. The design of the confirmatory trial is intended to be discussed with the FDA prior to a BLA submission. We are continuing to enroll cohorts of approximately 30 patients with non-melanoma skin cancers and MSI-H/dMMR tumors, although enrollment has slowed due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic. We recently began dosing a patient in the non-small cell lung cancer cohort. We expect that the primary data read-out from the IGNYTE Phase 2 melanoma cohort will be in 2022.
 
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
As reported in connection with SITC in October 2020, we had enrolled 36 melanoma and 20 non-melanoma skin cancer patients in the IGNYTE Phase 2 trial, 18 of whom were evaluable for efficacy. In order to be evaluable for efficacy in this clinical trial, a patient must have had at least one follow up scan or disease progression before the first follow up scan. Patients received up to eight doses of RP1 (up to 10 mL per visit once every two weeks, with a first dose of 106 PFU/mL followed by 107 PFU/mL) and nivolumab (240mg once every two weeks for four months followed by 480mg once every four weeks for up to two years) from the second RP1 dose. Of the 36 melanoma patients, 16 cutaneous melanoma patients had previously received anti-PD-1 (eight of whom had also previously received anti-CTLA-4), eight cutaneous melanoma patients were naïve to anti-PD-1 therapy, six patients had mucosal melanoma, and six patients had uveal melanoma. At the data cut-off date, five patients with cutaneous melanoma who had received prior anti-PD-1 therapy had responses (four partial responses and one complete response), four of whom also received prior anti-CTLA-4 therapy. An additional patient was classified as a surgical complete response and one patient remained on study with stable disease, having neither progressed nor met the formal definition for response. Further, four patients (two complete responses and two partial responses) with anti-PD-1 naïve cutaneous melanoma and two patients with mucosal melanoma (one of whom had prior anti-PD-1 therapy and achieved a complete response) had achieved responses. Of the 18 non-melanoma skin cancer patients evaluable for efficacy, 11 patients had CSCC, three had basal cell carcinoma, one had Merkel cell carcinoma, and three had angiosarcoma. At the data cut-off date, two patients with angiosarcoma had achieved response and eight patients with CSCC had achieved response, with five CSCC patients having achieved a complete response. An additional CSCC patient had stable disease at the time of the patient’s first scan with treatment continuing. Also as reported in connection with SITC in October 2020, across all cohorts all responses were ongoing out to approximately 20 months from the start of treatment with the exception of one CSCC patient and one anti-PD-1 refractory melanoma patient. Follow-up data for one responding angiosarcoma patient who stopped nivolumab therapy due to nivolumab side effects had currently not been obtained, and continuing response status was unknown. Adverse events remained consistent with those observed during the IGNYTE Phase 1 trial, with RP1 side effects generally of Grade 1 or 2 constitutional-type symptoms with less frequent Grade 3 side effects and no exacerbation of the side effects expected for nivolumab alone. Tumor biopsies in patients had continued routinely to show immune activation, including robust recruitment of CD8+ T cells, reversal of T cell exclusion, and increased PD-L1 expression.
We believe this data, while in a small number of patients, differentiates the combination data of RP1 and anti-PD-1 therapy versus what would be expected for anti-PD-1 therapy alone and for which complete responses are relatively infrequent.
We have also opened the ARTACUS trial for enrollment. The ARTACUS trial is a Phase 1b clinical trial of single agent RP1 in solid organ transplant recipients with CSCC, which we believe to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients). We are currently enrolling patients in the ARTACUS trial to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant recipients with recurrent CSCC and are currently targeting about 30 patients for this trial. Enrollment in this clinical trial has been impacted by COVID-19, as the patient population is severely immune-compromised and considered very high risk. Nevertheless, we have begun dosing patients in the ARTACUS trial and expect to present initial data from this clinical trial in the second half of the year.
Pipeline product candidate: RP2
We have designed our RP2 product candidate to express an anti-CTLA-4 antibody-like protein intended to block the inhibition of the immune response otherwise caused by CTLA-4. We believe that RP2 may offer advantages compared with current CTLA-4 approaches, including ipilimumab. By expressing anti-CTLA-4 only locally in the tumor and draining lymph nodes, we believe that activity will be retained, but that toxicity will be reduced. We intend that our RP2 product candidate will be used in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, which we believe will result in both synergy with the oncolytic virus and the expression of anti-CTLA-4 in the tumor.
The Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 is also being conducted as a collaboration with BMS, under which BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and will supply at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP2. During October 2020 we announced initial single-agent RP2 data from our
 
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 alone in patients with solid tumors. In this Phase 1 clinical trial, we are assessing initial tolerability of RP2 in solid tumors and determining the recommended Phase 2 dose of RP2 to be administered alone and then evaluating in combination with nivolumab. We believe these initial Phase 1 clinical data support the safety and efficacy of single-agent RP2, including demonstrating responses in injected and uninjected tumors in patients with difficult to treat, heavily pre-treated and immune insensitive advanced cancers. In addition, we believe these data support our hypothesis that anti-CTLA-4 expressed from RP2 and combined with oncolytic virus replication, with accompanying antigen release and presentation, can induce potent anti-tumor immune responses.
In the dose-escalation portion of this clinical trial, patients were treated with single-agent RP2 using a 3+3 dose escalation at two dose levels of up to 10 mL of RP2 once every two weeks, up to five times. The first dose level was 105 PFU/mL for the initial dose followed by four doses of 106 PFU/mL, and the second dose level was 106 PFU/mL for the initial dose followed by four doses of 107 PFU/mL. Lesions were directly injected or by using imaging guidance for deep seated, visceral lesions and tumor biopsies were obtained for biomarker analysis. Viral shedding and anti-HSV-1 antibody titers were also monitored. As the first six patients were all HSV seropositive per the protocol, an additional three HSV seronegative patients were enrolled as per the protocol.
As reported in October 2020, in connection with SITC, nine patients had been enrolled in the dose-escalation portion of this clinical trial and received single agent RP2. Of the nine patients treated with single agent RP2, three had ongoing responses at between 8 to 11 months from the start of treatment (one complete response and two partial responses) and a further patient remained on study with the response status continuing to be monitored. The objective responses were observed in patients with uveal melanoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, and esophageal cancer. A further patient with micro satellite stable (immune intensive) colorectal cancer remained on study and the response status continued to be monitored. The other five patients enrolled into the clinical trial were no longer being followed due to progressive disease. Adverse events were primarily Grade 1 or 2, including febrile and other constitutional symptoms, local inflammation, and erythema, with rarer Grade 3 side effects being observed. There were no dose-limiting toxicities requiring dose level expansion. The recommended Phase 2 dose was selected as up to 10 mL of 106 PFU/mL followed once every two weeks by multiple doses of 107 PFU/mL.
We are currently enrolling in a combination cohort with nivolumab of up to 30 patients to be dosed up to eight times at the Phase 2 dose level of RP2 in combination with nivolumab from the second RP2 dose (240mg once every two weeks for four months from the second RP2 dose, followed by 480mg once every four weeks for 20 months). As reported in October 2020, ten patients had been enrolled with no dose limiting toxicities, with none having yet been evaluated for efficacy. Initial data for this combination cohort is intended to be presented mid-2021.
Pipeline product candidate: RP3
We have designed our RP3 product candidate to express immune-activating proteins that stimulate T cells, in addition to anti-CTLA-4 and GALV-GP R(-). These immune activating proteins are the ligands for two immune co-stimulatory pathways responsible for T cell proliferation and/or activation, the CD40L and 4-1BBL pathways. We have obtained clearance from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom to enter clinical development with RP3 and in December 2020 we initiated dosing in this clinical trial. This Phase 1 clinical trial is designed to evaluate RP3 alone and combined with anti-PD-1 therapy in advanced solid tumor patients. Initial data from this trial is expected to be presented in the second half of 2021.
Intellectual property
We believe our rights under issued patents, if obtained, and patent applications will provide a competitive advantage. Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our product candidates, technology and know-how, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing upon our proprietary rights. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing United States and foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our
 
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
business. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our proprietary position.
For the core technology in our Immulytic platform and each of our product candidates, we have filed six patent applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT. All six of these PCT applications have entered the national phase and are pending in a range of countries. Examination has started in connection with some of the national phase applications. Four US patents have been granted by the applicable authorities in the US. Three European patents have been granted by the applicable authorities in the European Union and two patents have been granted by the applicable authorities in Hong Kong and a notice of allowance has been issued on one Israeli patent application. The granted US patents include US patent numbers 10,570,377; 10,612,005; 10,626,377; and 10,947,513 and include description and claims directed to oncolytic virus compositions of matter, pharmaceutical compositions encompassing an oncolytic virus and methods of use in treating cancer with oncolytic virus compositions. We continue to vigorously pursue advancement of our patent applications through examination in the respective patent offices in which they are pending throughout the world.
The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing a non-provisional patent application. In the United States, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration of a portion of the patent term lost during the U.S. clinical development and FDA regulatory review process. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under clinical development in the United States and the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. In the future, if and when our products receive FDA approval, and if and when patents grant, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents covering those products. We plan to seek patent term extensions to any of our issued patents in any jurisdiction where these are available, however there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities, including the FDA in the United States, will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and if granted, the length of such extensions.
We may rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets to protect our technology. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and other contractors, as well as physical security of our premises and our information technology systems.
Competition
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary rights. We compete in the highly competitive markets that address cancer and face significant competition from many sources, including pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, as well as universities and private and public research institutions. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing and drug development resources than we do. Large biopharmaceutical companies in particular have extensive experience in clinical testing and in obtaining regulatory approvals for drugs and biologicals. These companies also have significantly greater research capabilities than we do. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies or universities and research institutions.
Our competitors fall primarily into the following groups of treatment:

traditional cancer therapies, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation and targeted therapies;

approved immunotherapy antibodies and immunotherapy antibodies in clinical trials;

oncolytic immunotherapies, including T-Vec and other oncolytic immunotherapies in clinical trials;

therapies aimed at activating innate immunity such as those targeting STING and TLRs;
 
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

cancer vaccines including personalized vaccines and those targeting tumor neo-antigens; and

cell-based therapies, such as CAR-T, T cell receptor-based, and NK cell therapies.
Our commercial opportunity will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects, are easier to administer or are less expensive alone or in combination with other therapies than any products that we may develop alone or in combination with other therapies, especially if these get to market sooner than our products. These third parties also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies and technology licenses complementary to our programs or advantageous to our business.
Our oncolytic product candidates, if and when marketed, will compete with a number of drugs that are currently marketed or in development that also target cancer but that utilize a different mechanism of action. To compete effectively with these agents, our product candidates will need to demonstrate advantages that lead to improved clinical efficacy and safety compared with these competitors. At the same time, however, we believe that our oncolytic product candidates, if and when ultimately marketed, would likely be used principally in combination with checkpoint blockade therapies in addition to existing cancer therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and other biological therapies such as antibodies targeting particular surface receptors. We therefore believe that our product candidates, if and when marketed, would largely complement rather than compete directly with these existing treatment options.
We do, however, expect to face direct and increasing competition from a number of companies that are also seeking to develop cancer therapies based on oncolytic viruses and other ways to prime the immune system, including neo-antigen vaccination. We believe that our ability to successfully compete will depend, among other things, on our ability to:

expeditiously advance the development of our product candidates;

design, enroll patients in and successfully complete appropriate clinical trials in a timely fashion;

gain regulatory approval for our product candidates in their first indications as well as further indications;

establish collaborations and partnerships for the development and marketing of our product candidates;

commercialize our product candidates successfully, including convincing physicians, insurers and third-party payors of the safety and efficacy of our product candidates over currently approved therapies;

secure and protect intellectual property rights based on our innovations; and

manufacture or otherwise obtain and sell commercial quantities of future products to the market.
Manufacturing and suppliers
We have established an operations leadership team with extensive experience in manufacturing biologics based on viruses, including oncolytic products and gene therapy products, and in the construction, validation, approval and operation of facilities designed to manufacture biologics. Our team has already developed a robust and reproducible manufacturing process for our product candidates. We are also developing our product candidates for maximum practicality of use compared with some other oncolytic immunotherapies; in particular, our product candidates do not require refrigeration at –700 Celsius at clinical sites.
To date, our third-party contract manufacturer in Europe has been responsible for sourcing raw materials for use in the manufacture, in accordance with cGMP, of our product candidates for use in our planned early clinical trials. We currently use fetal bovine sera, a commonly used growth supplement, in the initial growth of the mammalian cells used in the production of our viral product candidates and a recombinant human protein to increase the stability of our drug formulation. We are in the process of developing our raw material supply chain for our product candidates as part of the process of establishing
 
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
our own manufacturing facility and intend to enter into commercial supply, collaboration or similar agreements prior to conducting advanced clinical trials.
Our approximately 63,000 square foot manufacturing facility in Framingham, Massachusetts is now fully operational. We plan to operate this in-house manufacturing facility in order to secure supplies for pivotal studies and commercial launch. The facility has been designed to allow us to produce enough material to cover full global commercialization of all our current product candidates. The facility is intended to give us control over key aspects of the supply chain for our products and product candidates.
By establishing our own manufacturing facility, we aim to minimize or eliminate our reliance on contract manufacturing organizations, which typically have limited capacity at commercial scale and quality. We believe that having control over the whole manufacturing process will allow us to reduce cycle times and cost of goods for commercial production and to shorten overall timelines for new product candidates in our development pipeline, as well as help us to develop drug formulations or presentations to simplify distribution and/or administration of future oncolytic immunotherapies. We also believe that having a dedicated manufacturing facility will allow us to optimize commercial-scale processes and to develop a suitable workforce capable of supporting market launch.
Sales and marketing
None of our product candidates have been approved for sale. If and when our product candidates receive marketing approval, we intend to commercialize them on our own in the United States and potentially with pharmaceutical or biotechnology partners in other geographies. We currently have no sales, marketing or commercialization capabilities and have no experience as a company doing such activities. However, on April 20, 2020, we announced the strengthening of our executive team with the appointment of Sushil Patel, Ph.D. as our Chief Commercial Officer effective May 3, 2021 and we intend to further build the necessary capabilities and infrastructure over time following the advancement of our product candidates. Clinical data, the size of the opportunity and the size of the commercial infrastructure required will influence our commercialization plans and decision making.
Collaborations
BMS
In 2018, we entered into a Clinical Trial Collaboration and Supply Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS. Pursuant to the agreement, BMS is providing to us, at no cost, nivolumab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for use in combination with RP1 in our ongoing IGNYTE Phase 1/2 trial. Under the agreement, we will sponsor, fund and conduct the clinical trial in accordance with an agreed-upon protocol. BMS granted us a non-exclusive, non-transferrable, royalty-free license (with a right to sublicense) under its intellectual property to use nivolumab in the IGNYTE trial and has agreed to supply nivolumab, at no cost to us, for use in the clinical trial. Both parties will own the study data produced in the clinical trial, other than study data related solely to nivolumab, which will belong solely to BMS, or study data related solely to RP1, which will belong solely to us. In January 2020, this agreement was expanded to cover an additional cohort of 125 patients with anti-PD-1 failed melanoma.
Unless earlier terminated, the agreement will remain in effect until (i) the completion of the clinical trial, (ii) all related clinical trial data have been delivered to both parties and (iii) the completion of any statistical analyses and bioanalyses contemplated by the clinical trial protocol or any analysis otherwise agreed upon by the parties. The agreement may be terminated by either party (i) in the event of an uncured material breach by the other party, (ii) in the event the other party is insolvent or in bankruptcy proceedings or (iii) for safety reasons. Upon termination, the licenses granted to us to use nivolumab in the clinical trial will terminate. The agreement contains representations, warranties, undertakings and indemnities customary for a transaction of this nature.
In 2019, we entered into a separate agreement with BMS on terms similar to the terms set forth in the agreement described above, pursuant to which BMS will provide, at no cost to us, nivolumab for use in our Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 in combination with nivolumab.
 
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Regeneron
In 2018, we entered into a Master Clinical Trial Collaboration and Supply Agreement with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Regeneron. Pursuant to the agreement we agreed to undertake one or more clinical trials with Regeneron for the administration of our product candidates in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron, across multiple solid tumor types, the first of which is our ongoing CERPASS Phase 2 trial testing RP1 in combination with cemiplimab versus cemiplimab alone in patients with CSCC. Each CERPASS trial will be conducted pursuant to an agreed study plan which, among other things, will identify the name of the sponsor and which party will manage the particular study, and include the protocol, the budget and a schedule of clinical obligations. The first study plan related to the CERPASS Phase 2 trial in CSCC has been agreed.
Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, each party granted the other party a non-exclusive license of their respective intellectual property and agreed to contribute the necessary resources needed to fulfill their respective obligations, in each case, under the terms of agreed study plans. Development costs of a particular clinical trial will be split equally. The agreement contains representations, warranties, undertakings and indemnities customary for a transaction of this nature. The agreement also contains certain time-based covenants that restrict us from entering into a third-party arrangement with respect to the use of our product candidates in combination with an anti-PD-1 therapy and that restrict Regeneron from entering into a third-party arrangement with respect to the use of cemiplimab in combination with an HSV-1 virus, in each case, for the treatment of a tumor type that is the subject of a clinical trial to which the covenants apply. Unless otherwise mutually agreed in a future study plan, these covenants are only applicable to our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in CSCC, and expire upon the one-year anniversary of the commencement of the applicable study plan.
The agreement may be terminated by either party if (i) there is no active study plan for which a final study report has not been completed and the parties have not entered into a study plan for an additional clinical trial within a period of time after the delivery of the most recent final study report or (ii) in the event of a material breach.
Regulatory matters
Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state, and local level, and in other countries, extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, approval, manufacture, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, marketing, import, and export of biopharmaceutical products such as those we are developing. In addition, manufacturers of biopharmaceutical products participating in Medicaid and Medicare are required to comply with mandatory price reporting, discount, and rebate requirements. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries, along with compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. The FDA and governmental authorities in other countries have issued a growing body of guidance documents on various regulatory matters, including those specific to cell and gene therapy development. Moreover, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA and governmental authorities in other countries have also issued a number of guidance documents to assist companies navigating COVID-19, product development, and manufacturing during the pandemic.
FDA and EU regulation
In the United States, the FDA regulates biologics under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, the Public Health Services Act, or PHSA, and their implementing regulations. The process required by the FDA before product candidates may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies, and formulation studies in compliance with GLP regulations;

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin at United States clinical trial sites;

approval by an IRB for each clinical site, or centrally, before each trial may be initiated;
 
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety, purity, and potency of the proposed product candidate for its intended use, performed in accordance with GCPs;

development of manufacturing processes to ensure the product candidate’s identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency;

submission to the FDA of a BLA;

satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable;

satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the products are produced to assess compliance with current cGMPs, and to assure that the facilities, methods, and controls are adequate to preserve the therapeutics’ identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency as well as satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of selected clinical sites and selected clinical investigators to determine GCP compliance; and

FDA review and approval of the BLA to permit commercial marketing for particular indications for use.
The process in the European Union and other countries with developed regulatory regimes is broadly comparable.
Preclinical studies and IND submission
The testing and approval process of product candidates requires substantial time, effort, and financial resources. Satisfaction of the FDA’s and other countries’ regulatory authorities’ pre-market approval requirements typically takes many years and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the product or disease. Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and product formulation, as well as animal studies to assess potential safety and efficacy. Such studies must generally be conducted in accordance with the FDA’s GLPs. Prior to commencing the first clinical trial at a United States or other country’s investigational site with a product candidate, an IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests and preclinical literature, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature, and proposed clinical study protocols among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND (or equivalent in other countries).
An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, notifies the applicant of safety concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the trial on a clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. Clinical holds also may be imposed by the FDA at any time before or during trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in FDA authorization to commence a clinical trial. A separate submission to an existing IND must also be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development.
Clinical trials
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with federal regulations and GCP requirements, which include the requirements that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial, as well as review and approval of the study by an IRB. Investigators must also provide certain information to the clinical trial sponsors to allow the sponsors to make certain financial disclosures to the FDA. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the trial procedures, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated, and a statistical analysis plan. A protocol for each clinical trial, and any subsequent protocol amendments, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. In addition, an IRB at each study site participating in the clinical trial or a central IRB must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial, informed consent forms, and communications to study subjects before a study commences at that site. An IRB considers, among other things, whether the risks to individuals participating in the trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits, and whether the planned human subject protections are adequate. The IRB must continue to oversee the clinical trial while it is being conducted. Once
 
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
an IND is in effect, each new clinical protocol and any amendments to the protocol must be added to the IND for FDA review, and to the IRB for approval. If a product candidate is being investigated for multiple intended indications, separate INDs may also be required. Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must also be submitted at least annually to the FDA and the IRB and more frequently if serious adverse events or other significant safety information is found.
The FDA may order the temporary, or permanent, discontinuation of a clinical trial at any time, or impose other sanctions, if it believes that the clinical trial either is not being conducted in accordance with FDA requirements or presents an unacceptable risk to the clinical trial patients. An IRB may also require the clinical trial at the site to be halted, either temporarily or permanently, for failure to comply with the IRB’s requirements or if the trial poses an unexpected serious harm to subjects. The FDA or an IRB may also impose conditions on the conduct of a clinical trial. Clinical trial sponsors may also choose to discontinue clinical trials as a result of risks to subjects, a lack of favorable results, or changing business priorities.
Information about certain clinical trials, including a description of the study and study results, must be submitted within specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for public dissemination on their clinicaltrials.gov website. Manufacturers or distributors of investigational products for the diagnosis, monitoring, or treatment of one or more serious diseases or conditions must also have a publicly available policy on evaluating and responding to requests for expanded access requests.
Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor that regularly reviews accumulated data and advises the study sponsor regarding the continuing safety of the trial. This group may also review interim data to assess the continuing validity and scientific merit of the clinical trial. This group receives special access to unblinded data during the clinical trial and may advise the sponsor to halt the clinical trial if it determined there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or on other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy.
Moreover, certain studies involving recombinant and synthetic nucleic acid molecules are subject to review by Institutional Biosafety Committees, or IBCs, under the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules.
The manufacture of investigational biologics for the conduct of human clinical trials is subject to current cGMP requirements. Investigational biologics and active ingredients imported into the United States are also subject to regulation by the FDA. Further, the export of investigational products outside of the United States is subject to regulatory requirements of the receiving country as well as United States export requirements under the FDCA.
In general, for purposes of BLA approval, human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined.

Phase 1 — Trials are initially conducted in healthy human volunteers or subjects with the target disease or condition and test the product candidate for safety, dosage tolerance, structure-activity relationships, mechanism of action, absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion. If possible, Phase 1 trials may also be used to gain an initial indication of product effectiveness.

Phase 2 — Controlled trials are conducted in limited subject populations with a specified disease or condition to evaluate the effectiveness of the product candidate for a particular indication or indications, identify optimal dosages, dosage tolerance and schedule, possible adverse effects and safety risks, and expanded evidence of safety.

Phase 3 — These adequate and well controlled clinical trials are undertaken in expanded subject populations, generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, to generate enough data to provide statistically significant evidence of clinical efficacy and safety of the product for approval, to establish the overall risk benefit profile of the product, and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the product. Typically, two Phase 3 trials are required by the FDA for product approval. Under some limited circumstances, however, approval may be based upon a single adequate and well-controlled clinical trial plus confirmatory evidence or a single large multicenter trial without confirmatory evidence.
 
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Additional kinds of data may also help to support a BLA, such as patient experience data and real-world evidence. Real world evidence may also be used to assist in clinical trial design. For appropriate indications sought through supplemental BLAs, data summaries may provide marketing application support. For genetically targeted products and variant protein targeted products intended to address an unmet medical need in one or more patient subgroups with a serious or life threatening rare disease or condition, the FDA may allow a sponsor to rely upon data and information previously developed by the sponsor or for which the sponsor has a right of reference, that was submitted previously to support an approved application for a product that incorporates or utilizes the same or similar genetically targeted technology or a product that is the same or utilizes the same variant protein targeted drug as the product that is the subject of the application.
Further, under certain circumstances, manufacturers and sponsors of investigational biopharmaceutical product candidates can provide access to the product candidates to certain qualifying patients outside of clinical trials. For instance, under the FDA’s expanded access program, with FDA approval and subject to certain requirements, sponsors may provide access to product candidates to patients with serious or immediately life threatening diseases or conditions for which there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy, provided that the potential patient benefit justifies the risks, the risks are not unreasonable in the context of the disease or condition to be treated, and the provision of the product candidate for the requested use will not interfere with clinical investigations. The specific expanded access criteria and requirements depend on the number of expanded access patients. Sponsors and investigators of expanded access programs must still comply with the FDA’s clinical trial guidelines and are subject to protection regulations. Federal and state laws in the United States, referred to as right to try laws, also establish a separate mechanism through which certain patients with life threatening diseases or conditions, who have exhausted all approved treatment options and are unable to participate in a clinical trial, may request access to investigational product candidates that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial. While certain criteria must be met for a patient to be eligible for access to product candidates under right to try laws, these laws do not require the FDA to approve the use of the product candidate and do not require compliance with the majority of the FDA’s clinical trial regulations.
The FDA may also require, or companies may conduct, additional clinical trials for the same indication after a product is approved. These so-called Phase 4 trials may be made a condition to be satisfied after approval. The results of Phase 4 trials can confirm or refute the effectiveness of a product candidate and can provide important safety information.
Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product candidate as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with current cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, manufacturers must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, potency, and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.
In relation to the clinical trial in the United Kingdom and in so far as trials will be conducted in other countries with a view to obtaining a marketing authorization from the European Medicines Agency, there are broadly equivalent GLP, GCP, cGMP and ethical approval requirements and European Union regulatory rules that are implemented nationally. However, enforcement of such rules is conducted by the regulatory authority in which the trial is carried out, which is the MHRA in the United Kingdom. With the full departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union in January 2021, different clinical trial approval and conduct requirements may apply. Specifically, the United Kingdom will not be subject to the forthcoming European Union Clinical Trial Regulation.
Combination Products
Biologic products may be regulated as combination products if they are intended for use in conjunction with medical devices, such as a delivery device. In such cases, the use of the two products together (i.e., the biological product and the device) must be shown to be safe and effective for the proposed intended use, and, the labeling of the two products must reflect their combined use. In some cases, the device component may
 
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
require a separate premarket submission; for example, when the device component is intended for use with multiple therapeutics. Sponsors of clinical studies using investigational devices are required to comply with FDA’s investigational device exemption regulations. Once approved or cleared, the sponsor of the device component submission (or the combination product submission, if both components are covered by one premarket submission) would need to comply with FDA’s post-market device requirements, including establishment registration, device listing, device labeling, unique device identifier, quality system regulations, medical device reporting, and reporting of corrections and removals. In the European Union there are specific quality requirements for drug-device combinations.
BLA submission, review by the FDA, and marketing approval
Assuming successful completion of the required clinical and preclinical testing, the results of product development, including chemistry, manufacture, and controls, non-clinical studies, and clinical trial results, including negative or ambiguous results as well as positive findings, are all submitted to the FDA, along with the proposed labeling, as part of a BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. In most cases, the submission of a BLA is subject to a substantial application user fee. These user fees must be paid at the time of the first submission of the application, even if the application is being submitted on a rolling basis. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances. One basis for a waiver of the application user fee is if the applicant employs fewer than 500 employees, including employees of affiliates, the applicant does not have an approved marketing application for a product that has been introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, and the applicant, including its affiliates, is submitting its first marketing application.
In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, a BLA or supplement to a BLA for a new active ingredient, indication, dosage form, dosage regimen, or route of administration, must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. Also, under the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, beginning in 2020, for applications for product candidates intended for the treatment of adult cancer which are directed at molecular targets that the FDA determines to be substantially relevant to the growth or progression of pediatric cancer, in place of the PREA investigations, sponsors must submit, with the application, reports from molecularly targeted pediatric cancer investigations designed to yield clinically meaningful pediatric study data, using appropriate formulations, to inform potential pediatric labeling. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements.
The FDA also may require submission of a REMS to ensure that the benefits of the biologic outweigh the risks. The REMS plan could include medication guides, physician communication plans, and elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, or other risk minimization tools. An assessment of the REMS must also be conducted at set intervals. Following product approval, a REMS may also be required by the FDA if new safety information is discovered and the FDA determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the biologic outweigh the risks.
Once the FDA receives an application, it has 60 days to review the BLA to determine if it is substantially complete to permit a substantive review before it accepts the application for filing. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept a BLA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review.
Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, the FDA has set the review goal of completing its review of 90% of all applications within ten months from the 60-day filing date for its initial review of a BLA. This review goal is referred to as the PDUFA date. The PDUFA date is only a goal, thus, the FDA does not always meet its PDUFA dates. The review process and the PDUFA date may also be extended if the FDA requests or the sponsor otherwise provides substantial additional information or clarification regarding the submission.
 
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
The FDA may also refer certain applications to an advisory committee. Before approving a biologic for which no active ingredient, including any ester or salt of active ingredients, has previously been approved by the FDA, the FDA must either refer that biologic to an external advisory committee or provide in an action letter, a summary of the reasons why the FDA did not refer the product candidate to an advisory committee. An advisory committee is typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, which review, evaluate, and make a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.
The FDA reviews applications to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe, pure and potent and whether the manufacturing methods and controls are adequate to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality, potency, and purity. Before approving a BLA, the FDA typically will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured, referred to as a Pre-Approval Inspection. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities, including contract manufacturers and subcontractors, are in compliance with current cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving a BLA the FDA will inspect one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCPs.
After evaluating the BLA and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendation, if any, and inspection reports regarding the manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a Complete Response Letter, or CRL. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval, and describes all of the specific deficiencies that the FDA identified in the BLA. A CRL generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the BLA and may require additional clinical or preclinical testing in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The deficiencies identified may be minor, for example, requiring labeling changes, or major, for example, requiring additional clinical trials. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either: resubmit the BLA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter; withdraw the application; or request an opportunity for a hearing. The FDA has the goal of reviewing 90% of application resubmissions in either two or six months of the resubmission date, depending on the kind of resubmission. Even with submission of this additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA may issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications.
Even if the FDA approves a product, it may limit the approved indications or populations for use of the product, require that contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling, including a boxed warning, require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety and efficacy after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may also not approve label statements that are necessary for successful commercialization and marketing.
After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval. The FDA may also withdraw the product approval if compliance with the pre- and post-marketing regulatory standards are not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. Further, should new safety information arise, additional testing, product labeling, or FDA notification may be required.
While there is no direct equivalent to the separate route for biologics, broadly equivalent requirements and controls similarly apply to the submission of pediatric testing and marketing authorization applications to the European Medicines Agency in the European Union and, post-approval, to the holding of such marketing authorizations, including conditionality.
 
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Biosimilars and exclusivity
The BPCIA creates an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products shown to be highly similar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. Biosimilarity sufficient to reference a prior FDA-approved product requires a high similarity to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, and no clinically meaningful differences between the biological product and the reference product in terms of safety, purity, and potency. Biosimilarity must be shown through analytical studies, animal studies, and at least one clinical trial, absent a waiver by the FDA. There must be no difference between the reference product and a biosimilar in mechanism of action, conditions of use, route of administration, dosage form, and strength. A biosimilar product may be deemed interchangeable with a prior approved product if it meets the higher hurdle of demonstrating that it can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product and, for products administered multiple times, the biosimilar and the reference biologic may be switched after one has been previously administered without increasing safety risks or risks of diminished efficacy relative to exclusive use of the reference biologic. The FDA has issued a number of guidance documents outlining its approach to review and approval of biosimilars, including guidance documents on the demonstration of interchangeability and the licensure of biosimilar and interchangeable products for fewer than all of the reference product’s licensed conditions of use.
A reference biologic is granted 12 years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the reference product, and no application for a biosimilar can be submitted for four years from the date of licensure of the reference product. However, certain changes and supplements to an approved BLA, and subsequent applications filed by the same sponsor, manufacturer, licensor, predecessor in interest, or other related entity do not qualify for the twelve-year exclusivity period. The PHSA also includes provisions to protect reference products that have patent protection. The biosimilar product sponsor and reference product sponsor may exchange certain patent and product information for the purpose of determining whether there should be a legal patent challenge. Based on the outcome of negotiations surrounding the exchanged information, the reference product sponsor may bring a patent infringement suit and injunction proceedings against the biosimilar product sponsor. The biosimilar applicant may also be able to bring an action for declaratory judgment concerning the patent.
In the European Union there is a period of 10 years (or 11 years for significant new indications) of data exclusivity so that those seeking to market biosimilars cannot apply on an abridged basis for a marketing authorization for eight years from when the product was first marketed in the European Union and cannot place it on the market for 10 or 11 years from such first marketing.
If approved, biologics may also be eligible for periods of United States patent term restoration. If granted, patent term restoration extends the patent life of a single unexpired patent, that has not previously been extended, for a maximum of five years. The total patent life with the extension also cannot exceed fourteen years from the product’s approval date. Subject to the prior limitations, the period of the extension is calculated by adding half of the time from the effective date of an IND to the initial submission of a marketing application, and all of the time between the submission of the marketing application and its approval. This period may also be reduced by any time that the applicant did not act with due diligence.
In the European Union, a supplementary protection certificate, or SPC, can similarly extend a patent term for a maximum of five years. A six-month additional extension, however, is available if the SPC relates to a medicinal product for which data has been submitted according to a Pediatric Investigation Plan.
In an effort to increase competition in the biologic product marketplace, Congress, the executive branch, and FDA have taken certain legislative and regulatory steps. By way of example, in 2020 the FDA finalized a draft guidance to facilitate biologic product importation. Moreover, the 2020 Further Consolidated Appropriations Act included provisions requiring that sponsors of approved biologic products, including those subject to REMS, provide samples of the approved products to persons developing biosimilar products within specified timeframes, in sufficient quantities, and on commercially reasonable market-based terms. Failure to do so can subject the approved product sponsor to civil actions, penalties, and responsibility for attorney’s fees and costs of the civil action.
Post-approval requirements
Any products manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements related to manufacturing,
 
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
recordkeeping, and reporting, including adverse experience reporting, deviation reporting, shortage reporting, risk management plans, supply chain security, and periodic reporting, product distribution, advertising, marketing, promotion, certain electronic records and signatures, and post-approval obligations imposed as a condition of approval, such as Phase 4 clinical trials, REMS, and surveillance to assess safety and effectiveness after commercialization.
After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There also are continuing annual program user fee requirements for approved products. In addition, manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved therapeutics are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, list their products, and are subject to periodic announced and unannounced inspections by the FDA and these state agencies for compliance with current cGMP and other requirements, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon us and third-party manufacturers. Recently, the information that must be submitted to FDA regarding manufactured products was expanded through the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security, or CARES, Act to include the volume of drugs produced during the prior year. Manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the areas of production and quality-control to maintain compliance with current cGMPs. Regulatory authorities may withdraw product approvals, require label modifications or request product recalls, among other actions, if a company fails to comply with regulatory standards, if it encounters problems following initial marketing, or if previously unrecognized problems are subsequently discovered.
Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated and often require prior FDA approval or notification before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from current cGMP and specifications and impose reporting and documentation requirements upon the sponsor and any third-party manufacturers that the sponsor may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain current cGMP compliance.
The FDA also strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising, and promotion of products that are placed on the market. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity, and potency that are approved by the FDA. Physicians, in their independent professional medical judgment, may prescribe legally available products for unapproved indications that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested and approved by the FDA. Biopharmaceutical companies, however, are required to promote their products only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including, but not limited to, criminal and civil penalties under the FDCA and False Claims Act, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, mandatory compliance programs under corporate integrity agreements, suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts.
Moreover, the Drug Quality and Security Act imposes obligations on manufacturers of biopharmaceutical products related to product tracking and tracing. Among the requirements of this legislation, manufacturers are required to provide certain information regarding the products to individuals and entities to which product ownership is transferred, are required to label products with a product identifier, and are required to keep certain records regarding the product. The transfer of information to subsequent product owners by manufacturers is also required to be done electronically. Manufacturers must also verify that purchasers of the manufacturers’ products are appropriately licensed. Further, under this legislation, manufactures have product investigation, quarantine, disposition, and notification responsibilities related to counterfeit, diverted, stolen, and intentionally adulterated products that would result in serious adverse health consequences or death to humans, as well as products that are the subject of fraudulent transactions or which are otherwise unfit for distribution such that they would be reasonably likely to result in serious health consequences or death. Similar requirements additionally are and will be imposed through this legislation on other companies within the biopharmaceutical product supply chain, such as distributors and dispensers.
Adverse event reporting and submission of periodic reports, including annual reports and deviation reports, are required following FDA approval of a BLA. Later discovery of previously unknown problems
 
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in significant regulatory actions. Such actions may include refusal to approve pending applications, license suspension or revocation, imposition of a clinical hold or termination of clinical trials, warning letters, untitled letters, cyber letters, modification of promotional materials or labeling, provision of corrective information, imposition of post-market requirements including the need for additional testing, imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS, product recalls, product seizures or detentions, refusal to allow imports or exports, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, FDA debarment, injunctions, fines, consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, suspension and debarment from government contracts, refusal of orders under existing government contracts, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, restitution, disgorgement, or civil or criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment, and result in adverse publicity, among other adverse consequences.
Broadly equivalent requirements, controls and sanctions similarly apply to supply, QA, manufacture, labelling, advertising, pharmacovigilance and tracing of medicinal products as imposed by European Union laws and enforced by European Union national regulatory authorities.
Additional controls for biologics
To help reduce the increased risk of the introduction of adventitious agents, the PHSA emphasizes the importance of manufacturing controls for products whose attributes cannot be precisely defined. The PHSA also provides authority to the FDA to immediately suspend licenses in situations where there exists a danger to public health, to prepare or procure products in the event of shortages and critical public health needs, and to authorize the creation and enforcement of regulations to prevent the introduction or spread of communicable diseases in the United States and between states.
After a BLA is approved, the product may also be subject to official lot release as a condition of approval. As part of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer is required to perform certain tests on each lot of the product before it is released for distribution. If the product is subject to official release by the FDA, the manufacturer submits samples of each lot of product to the FDA together with a release protocol showing the results of all of the manufacturer’s tests performed on the lot. The FDA may also perform certain confirmatory tests on lots of some products before releasing the lots for distribution by the manufacturer.
In addition, the FDA conducts laboratory research related to the regulatory standards on the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of biological products. There are also a number of additional standards that apply to oncolytic virus products. The FDA has issued various applicable guidance documents on factors that the agency considers during product development including, but not limited to, preclinical assessments; chemistry manufacturing and controls; and long-term patient and clinical study subject follow up and regulatory reporting. In the European Union, while there is no direct equivalent to the separate route for biologics, the EMA issues scientific guidelines on biological medicinal products and the standard Common Technical Document structure is modified for biologicals, plasma-derived products.
Fraud and abuse, data privacy and security, and transparency laws and regulations
Our business activities, including but not limited to, research, sales, promotion, distribution, medical education, and other activities following product approval will be subject to regulation by numerous federal and state regulatory and law enforcement authorities in the United States in addition to the FDA, including potentially the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services and its various divisions, including the CMS and the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and state and local governments. Our business activities must comply with numerous healthcare laws, including but not limited to, anti-kickback and false claims laws and regulations as well as data privacy and security laws and regulations, which are described below, as well as state and federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which regulates, among other things, marketing practices, educational programs, pricing policies, and relationships with healthcare providers or other entities, prohibits, among other things, any person or entity, from knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting,
 
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
or receiving any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering, or arranging for or recommending the purchase, lease, or order, or the referral to another for the furnishing or arranging for the furnishing of any item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal healthcare programs, in whole or in part. The term “remuneration” has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between biopharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, formulary managers, and beneficiaries on the other, as well as free trial and starter prescriptions provided through pharmacies. There are certain statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution. HHS recently promulgated a regulation that is effective in two phases. First, the regulation excludes from the definition of “remuneration” limited categories of (a) PBM rebates or other reductions in price to a plan sponsor under Medicare Part D or a Medicaid Managed Care Organization plan reflected in point-of sale reductions in price and (b) PBM service fees. Second, effective January 1, 2023, the regulation expressly provides that rebates to plan sponsors under Medicare Part D either directly to the plan sponsor under Medicare Part D, or indirectly through a pharmacy benefit manager will not be protected under the anti-kickback discount safe harbor. The exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases, or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all of the facts and circumstances. Several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, including purchases of products paid by federal healthcare programs, the statute has been violated. The ACA modified the intent requirement under the Anti-Kickback Statute to a stricter standard, such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the ACA also provided that a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute is grounds for the government or a whistleblower to assert that a claim for payment of items or services resulting from such violation constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act.
The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government, knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government, or avoiding, decreasing, or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. A claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the U.S. government. The civil False Claims Act has been used to assert liability on the basis of kickbacks and other improper referrals, improperly reported government pricing metrics such as Best Price or Average Manufacturer Price, improper use of Medicare provider or supplier numbers when detailing a provider of services, improper promotion of off-label uses not expressly approved by the FDA in a product’s label, and allegations as to misrepresentations with respect to products, contract requirements and services rendered. In addition, private payers have filed follow-on lawsuits alleging fraudulent misrepresentation, although establishing liability and damages in these cases is more difficult than under the civil False Claims Act. Intent to deceive is not required to establish liability under the civil False Claims Act. Civil False Claims Act actions may be brought by the government or may be brought by private individuals on behalf of the government, called “qui tam” actions. If the government decides to intervene in a qui tam action and prevails in the lawsuit, the individual will share in the proceeds from any fines or settlement funds. If the government declines to intervene, the individual may pursue the case alone. The civil False Claims Act provides for treble damages and a civil penalty for each false claim, such as an invoice or pharmacy claim for reimbursement, which can aggregate into millions of dollars. For these reasons, since 2004, civil False Claims Act lawsuits against biopharmaceutical companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to several substantial civil and criminal settlements, as much as $3.0 billion, regarding certain sales practices and promoting off label uses. Civil False Claims Act liability may further be imposed for known Medicare or Medicaid overpayments, for example, overpayments caused by understated rebate amounts, that are not refunded within 60 days of discovering the overpayment, even if the overpayment was not caused by a false or fraudulent act. In addition, conviction or civil judgment for violating the civil False Claims Act may result in exclusion from federal health care programs, suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts.
 
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
The government may further prosecute conduct constituting a false claim under the criminal False Claims Act. The criminal False Claims Act prohibits the making or presenting of a claim to the government knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent and, unlike the civil False Claims Act, requires proof of intent to submit a false claim.
The civil monetary penalties statute is another potential statute under which biopharmaceutical companies may be subject to enforcement. Among other things, the civil monetary penalties statute imposes fines against any person who is determined to have knowingly presented, or caused to be presented, claims to a federal healthcare program that the person knows, or should know, is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.
Payment or reimbursement of prescription therapeutics by Medicaid or Medicare requires manufacturers to submit certified pricing information to CMS. The Medicaid Drug Rebate statute requires manufacturers to calculate and report price points, which are used to determine Medicaid rebate payments shared between the states and the federal government and Medicaid payment rates for certain therapeutics. The Medicaid Drug Rebate statute also imposes inflation penalties, and recent legislative proposals have called for removal of caps limiting the magnitude of these penalties and the implementation of new inflation penalties applicable to the Medicare program. In addition to the Medicaid statutory rebate, states are authorized to negotiate supplemental rebates on pharmaceuticals included in their formularies. For therapeutics paid under Medicare Part B, manufacturers must also calculate and report their Average Sales Price, which is used to determine the Medicare Part B payment rate. For products approved under a BLA (including biosimilars), or an NDA, the Veterans Health Care Act, or VHCA, requires manufacturers to calculate and report to the Department Veterans Affairs, or VA, a different price called the Non-Federal Average Manufacturer Price, which is used to determine the maximum price that can be charged to certain federal agencies, referred to as the Federal Ceiling Price, or FCP. Like the Medicaid rebate amount, the FCP includes an inflation penalty. A Department of Defense regulation requires manufacturers to provide this discount on therapeutics dispensed by retail pharmacies when paid by the TRICARE Program. All of these price reporting requirements create risk of submitting false information to the government, and potential FCA liability.
The VHCA also requires manufacturers of covered therapeutics participating in the Medicaid program to enter into Federal Supply Schedule contracts with the VA through which their covered therapeutics must be sold to certain federal agencies at FCP. This necessitates compliance with applicable federal procurement laws and regulations, including submission of commercial sales and pricing information and certification of compliance with the Trade Agreements Act, and subjects us to contractual remedies as well as administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions. In addition, the VHCA requires manufacturers participating in Medicaid to agree to provide different mandatory discounts to certain Public Health Service grantees and other safety net hospitals and clinics under the 340B program based on the manufacturer’s reported Medicaid pricing information. The 340B program has its own regulatory authority to impose sanctions for non-compliance and adjudicate overcharge claims against manufacturers by the purchasing entities.
The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, or HIPAA, also created federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud or to obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, a healthcare benefit program, regardless of whether the payor is public or private, in connection with the delivery or payment for health care benefits, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a health care benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a health care offense and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing, or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items, or services relating to healthcare matters. Additionally, the ACA amended the intent requirement of certain of these criminal statutes under HIPAA so that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute, or the specific intent to violate it, to have committed a violation.
Under the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act and its implementing regulations, manufacturers of biologics for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) must make annual reports to CMS regarding payments and other transfers of value made to or at the request of covered recipients, such as, but not limited to, physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, and certified registered nurse anesthetists and teaching
 
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family. Certain payments for clinical trials are included within the ambit of this law. CMS makes the reported information publicly available.
Further, we may be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH Act, and its respective implementing regulations imposes requirements on covered entities relating to the privacy, security, and transmission of certain individually identifiable health information known as protected health information. Among other things, the HITECH Act, through its implementing regulations, makes HIPAA’s security standards and certain privacy standards directly applicable to business associates, defined as a person or organization, other than a member of a covered entity’s workforce, that creates, receives, maintains, or transmits protected health information on behalf of a covered entity for a function or activity regulated by HIPAA. The HITECH Act also strengthened the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates, and individuals, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, other federal and state laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, may govern the privacy and security of health and other information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not be preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Many states have also adopted laws similar to each of the above federal laws, which may be broader in scope and apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers. Certain state laws also regulate manufacturers’ use of prescriber-identifiable data. Certain states also require implementation of commercial compliance programs and compliance with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments or the provision of other items of value that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; impose restrictions on marketing practices; or require manufacturers to track and report information related to payments, gifts, and other items of value to physicians and other healthcare providers. Recently, states have enacted or are considering legislation intended to make drug prices more transparent and deter significant price increases. These laws may affect our future sales, marketing, and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens.
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws or regulations described above or any other laws that apply to us, we may be subject penalties or other enforcement actions, including criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, corporate integrity agreements, suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.
To the extent that any of our products are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals. In the European Union, the data privacy laws are generally perceived to be stricter than those which apply in the United States and include specific requirements for the transfer of personal data outside the European Union to the United States to ensure that European Union standards of data privacy will be applied to such data.
Coverage and reimbursement generally
The commercial success of our product candidates and our ability to commercialize any approved product candidates successfully will depend in part on the extent to which governmental payor programs at the federal and state levels, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers, and other third-party payors, provide coverage for and establish adequate reimbursement levels for our product candidates. Government authorities, private health insurers, and other organizations generally decide which therapeutics they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels for healthcare. Medicare is a federally funded program managed by CMS through local fiscal intermediaries and carriers that administer coverage and reimbursement
 
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
for certain healthcare items and services furnished to the elderly and disabled. Medicaid is an insurance program for certain categories of patients whose income and assets fall below state defined levels and who are otherwise uninsured that is both federally and state funded and managed by each state. The federal government sets general guidelines for Medicaid and each state creates specific regulations that govern its individual program, including supplemental rebate programs that restrict coverage to therapeutics on the state Preferred Drug List. Similarly, government laws and regulations establish the parameters for coverage of prescription therapeutics by health plans participating in state exchanges and Tricare, the health care program for military personnel, retirees, and related beneficiaries. Some states have also created pharmacy assistance programs for individuals who do not qualify for federal programs. In the United States, private health insurers and other third-party payors often provide reimbursement for products and services based on the level at which the government provides reimbursement through the Medicare or Medicaid programs for such products and services.
In the United States, the European Union, and other potentially significant markets for our product candidates, government authorities and third-party payors are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, particularly for new and innovative products and therapies, which often has resulted in average selling prices lower than they would otherwise be and sometimes at or below the provider’s acquisition cost. In the United States, it is also common for government and private health plans to use coverage determinations to leverage rebates from manufacturers in order to reduce the plans’ net costs. These restrictions and limitations influence the purchase of healthcare services and products and lower the realization on manufacturers’ sales of prescription therapeutics. Third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific therapeutic products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved products for a particular indication or might impose high copayment amounts to influence patient choice. Third-party payors also control costs by requiring prior authorization or imposing other dispensing restrictions before covering certain products and by broadening therapeutic classes to increase competition. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. Absent clinical differentiators, third-party payors may treat products as therapeutically equivalent and base formulary decisions on net cost. To lower the prescription cost, manufacturers frequently rebate a portion of the prescription price to the third-party payors. Recently, purchasers and third-party payors have begun to focus on value of new therapeutics and sought agreements in which price is based on achievement of performance metrics.
Federal programs also impose price controls through mandatory ceiling prices on purchases by federal agencies and federally funded hospitals and clinics and mandatory rebates on retail pharmacy prescriptions paid by Medicaid and Tricare. These restrictions and limitations influence the purchase of healthcare services and products. Legislative proposals to reform healthcare or reduce costs under government programs may result in lower reimbursement for our product candidates or exclusion of our product candidates from coverage. In addition, government programs like Medicaid include substantial penalties for increasing commercial prices over the rate of inflation. All of these conditions can affect realization and return on investment.
Private payors often rely on the lead of the governmental payors in rendering coverage and reimbursement determinations. Therefore, achieving favorable CMS coverage and reimbursement is usually a significant gating issue for successful introduction of a new product. In addition, many government programs as a condition of participation mandate fixed discounts or rebates from manufacturers regardless of formulary position or utilization, and then rely on competition in the market to attain further price reductions, which can greatly reduce realization on the sale.
Further, the increased emphasis on managed healthcare in the United States and on country and regional pricing and reimbursement controls in the European Union will put additional pressure on product pricing, reimbursement, and utilization, which may adversely affect our future product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, competition within therapeutic classes, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid, and healthcare reform, biopharmaceutical coverage and reimbursement policies, and pricing in general. Patients who are prescribed treatments for their conditions and providers performing the prescribed
 
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
services generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the associated healthcare costs. Sales of our product candidates will therefore depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of our products will be paid by health maintenance, managed care, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations, or reimbursed by government health administration authorities, such as Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers, and other third-party payors.
As a result of the above, we may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic and/or health technology assessment studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain the FDA and EMA approvals. Our product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective, or the rebate percentages required to secure coverage may not yield an adequate margin over cost.
Moreover, a payor’s decision to provide coverage for a product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in therapeutic development. Legislative or regulatory proposals to reform healthcare or reduce costs under government insurance programs may result in lower reimbursement for our products and product candidates or exclusion of our products and product candidates from coverage. The cost containment measures that healthcare payors and providers are instituting and any healthcare reform could significantly reduce our revenues from the sale of any approved product candidates. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to obtain and maintain third-party coverage or adequate reimbursement for our product candidates in whole or in part.
The absence in Europe of any substantive harmonization of pricing and reimbursement regimes, including health technology assessment, means that separate negotiations will need to take place with the relevant authorities in each member state and may include a variety of risk share agreements with payors.
Healthcare reform measures
The United States and some foreign jurisdictions are considering or have enacted a number of legislative and regulatory proposals designed to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality, and expanding access. In the United States, the biopharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives.
For example, on November 27, 2020, CMS issued an interim final rule implementing a Most Favored Nation payment model under which reimbursement for certain Medicare Part B drugs and biologicals will be based on a price that reflects the lowest per capita Gross Domestic Product-adjusted (GDP-adjusted) price of any non-U.S. member country of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) with a GDP per capita that is at least sixty percent of the U.S. GDP per capita. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare and other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.
Moreover, the ACA broadened access to health insurance, attempts to reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhanced remedies against fraud and abuse, added new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, imposed new taxes and fees on the health care industry, and imposed additional health policy reforms. The law expanded the eligibility criteria and mandatory eligibility categories for Medicaid programs, thereby potentially increasing both the volume of sales and manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability. The law also expanded the 340B discount program that mandates discounts to certain hospitals, community centers, and other qualifying providers, by expanding the categories of entities eligible to purchase under the program. In addition, the ACA authorized civil monetary penalties for violating 340B pricing requirements, and regulations implementing this authority became effective on January 1, 2019. The ACA revised the definition of “average manufacturer price”, or AMP, for reporting purposes, which generally increased the amount of Medicaid rebates to states and created a separate AMP for certain categories of administered therapeutics provided in non-retail outpatient settings. The law additionally extended manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered therapeutics dispensed to patients enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations and increased the statutory minimum rebates a
 
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program. The revisions to the AMP definition and Medicaid rebate formula can have the further effect of increasing the required 340B discounts. Further, the ACA required manufacturers of covered therapeutics to pay mandatory Medicare Part D coverage gap rebates, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, increased the required percentage to 70% of the pharmacy charge to Medicare Part D patients while they are in the coverage gap. Finally, the ACA imposes a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription therapeutic products. Substantial new provisions affecting compliance have also been enacted through the ACA and otherwise, including the reporting of therapeutic sample distribution, which may require us to modify our business practices with healthcare practitioners. Although the ACA was recently amended to repeal the individual insurance mandate, and efforts to repeal and replace portions of the law may continue, it is likely that pressure on biopharmaceutical pricing, especially under the Medicare program, will continue, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs. Moreover, in the coming years, additional changes could be made to governmental healthcare programs that could significantly impact the success of our product candidates.
The cost of biopharmaceuticals continues to generate substantial governmental and third-party payor interest. We expect that the biopharmaceutical industry will experience pricing pressures due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of managed care organizations and additional legislative proposals. Our results of operations could be adversely affected by current and future healthcare reforms.
Some third-party payors also require pre-approval of coverage for new or innovative devices or therapies before they will reimburse healthcare providers that use such therapies. While we cannot predict whether any proposed cost-containment measures will be adopted or otherwise implemented in the future, the announcement or adoption of these proposals could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain adequate prices for our product candidates.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. The Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend proposals in spending reductions to Congress. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction did not achieve its targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, triggering the legislation’s automatic reductions to several government programs. These reductions include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 retained the federal budget “sequestration” Medicare payment reductions of 2%, at present that reduction has been extended through 2030. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 further reduced Medicare payments to several categories of healthcare providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These and other healthcare reform initiatives may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial operations. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could further limit the prices we are able to charge, or the amounts of reimbursement available, for our product candidates once they are approved. The Bipartisan Budget Act also extended Manufacturer responsibility for prescription costs in the Medicare Part D coverage gap to biosimilars, which had previously been exempt.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, or authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party, or candidate or representatives of international organizations for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business or obtaining an improper advantage. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with books and records an accounting control provisions requiring the company to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations. Activities that violate the FCPA, even if they occur wholly outside the United States, can result in criminal and civil fines, imprisonment, disgorgement, oversight by compliance monitors, and suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts.
 
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Other foreign anti-corruption regimes are arguably of wider application. For instance, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 applies to dealings with any decision maker whether in the private or public sector in a position of trust.
Background on certain of our target indications
Set forth below is a description of certain of the target indications we currently intend to pursue with our product candidates.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
CSCC is the second most common form of skin cancer and is estimated to be responsible for at least 7,000 deaths each year in the United States. It currently accounts for approximately 20% of all skin cancers in the U.S., with the number of newly diagnosed cases expected to rise annually. When CSCC invades deeper layers of the skin or adjacent tissues, it is categorized as locally advanced. Once it spreads to other distant parts of the body, it is considered metastatic. Cemiplimab is the only approved therapy in the United States and Brazil, and conditionally approved therapy in the European Union and Canada, for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic CSCC.
Melanoma
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer characterized by the uncontrolled growth of pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) located in the skin. Metastatic melanoma is the deadliest form of the disease and occurs when cancer spreads beyond the surface of the skin to other organs. The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily for the last 30 years. In the United States, 91,270 new diagnoses of melanoma and more than 9,320 related deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2018. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that by 2035, melanoma incidence will reach 424,102, with 94,308 related deaths. Melanoma is mostly curable when treated in its very early stages; however, survival rates are roughly halved if regional lymph nodes are involved.
Human capital
As of March 31, 2021, we employed 152 employees, all of which are full-time employees. Of the 152 employees, 129 are in research and development and 23 are in general and administrative functions. We have never had a work stoppage, and none of our employees is represented by a labor organization or under any collective bargaining arrangements. We consider our employee relations to be good.
We focus on identifying, attracting, retaining and developing highly talented and motivated employees. Our equity and cash incentive plans are aligned to attract, retain and reward our employees through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards. We believe motivating our employees to perform at their highest level and take pride in achieving company goals increases stockholder value.
The well-being, health and safety of our employees are integral to the success of our business. In an effort to protect the health and safety of our employees, early in the COVID-19 outbreak we proactively implemented social distancing policies at our facilities, encouraged and enabled remote working arrangements and restricted employee travel. In addition, we provided a safety training for all employees and we established a task force focused on creating and keeping employees well informed about our latest plans and guidance around COVID-19.
Corporate information
We are a Delaware corporation organized in July 2017. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 Unicorn Park Drive, 3rd Floor, Woburn, MA 01801, and our telephone number is (781) 222-9600. Our website is www.replimune.com. Information that is contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
26

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Available information
We make available free of charge on the investor relations portion of our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements for our annual meetings of stockholders, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. These filings are available for download free of charge on the investor relations portion of our website located at https://ir.replimune.com. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is https://www.sec.gov.
Item 1A.
Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s discussion and analysis of results of operations and financial condition.” If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
Summary of Risk Factors
Material risks that may affect our business, operating results and financial condition include, but are not necessarily limited to, those relating to:

the timing, progress, and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates, and the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals for any of our other product candidates;

our ability to develop and advance any future product candidates based on our novel Immulytic platform and successfully complete clinical trials;

our ability to develop our product candidates for use in combination with other checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti-PD-1;

our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we receive regulatory approval and our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations or the market acceptance of our product candidates if approved for commercial use;

our ability to compete with other biopharmaceutical, biotechnology companies and other third parties and risks associated with such third parties developing or commercializing products more quickly or marketing them more successfully than us;

negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology including clinical or commercial developments that may be attributed to our product candidates;

our history of losses, the likelihood that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing net losses in the future, and the likelihood that we will require additional financing to achieve our goals;

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering RP1 and our other product candidates, claims others may make regarding rights in our intellectual property, and any potential infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any third-party intellectual property rights;

the costs of operating our in-house manufacturing facility and our reliance on third-party collaborators and clinical trial service providers;

our compliance with domestic and foreign laws, rules and regulations and the consequences in the event that we fail to comply with such laws, rules and regulations;
 
27

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, or COVID-19, as a global pandemic and related public health issues; and
Risks related to product development
Our product candidates are in the early stages of development, are not approved for commercial sale and might never receive regulatory approval or become commercially viable. We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
All of our product candidates are in research or early development. We have not generated any revenues from the sale of products and do not expect to do so for at least the next several years. Our lead product candidate, RP1, and any other product candidates will require extensive preclinical and/or clinical testing and regulatory approval prior to commercial use. Our research and development efforts may not be successful. Even if our clinical development efforts result in positive data, our product candidates may not receive regulatory approval or be successfully introduced and marketed at prices that would permit us to operate profitably.
An underlying problem with our Immulytic platform would adversely affect our business and may require us to discontinue development of product candidates based on the same or similar therapeutic approaches.
Since all of the product candidates in our current pipeline are based on our Immulytic platform, if any of our product candidates fail in development as a result of any underlying problem with our Immulytic platform, then we may be required to discontinue development of all product candidates that are based on our therapeutic approach. If we were required to discontinue development of our product candidates that are based on our therapeutics approach, or if any of them were to fail to receive regulatory approval or achieve sufficient market acceptance, we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability. We can provide no assurance that we would be successful at developing other product candidates based on an alternative therapeutic approach.
We will not be able to commercialize our product candidates if our preclinical studies do not produce successful results and/or our clinical trials do not demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates.
Our product candidates are susceptible to the risks of failure inherent at any stage of product development, including the occurrence of unexpected or unacceptable adverse events or the failure to demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. Clinical development is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain.
The results of preclinical studies, preliminary study results, and early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later stage clinical trials. Our product candidates may not perform as we expect, may ultimately have a different or no impact on tumors, may have a different mechanism of action than we expect in humans, and may not ultimately prove to be safe and effective.
Preliminary and final results from preclinical studies and early stage trials, and trials in compounds that we believe are similar to ours, may not be representative of results that are found in larger, controlled, blinded, and longer-term studies. Product candidates may fail at any stage of preclinical or clinical development. Product candidates may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits even if they have progressed through preclinical studies or initial clinical trials. Preclinical studies and clinical trials may also reveal unfavorable product candidate characteristics, including safety concerns. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, notwithstanding promising results in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials or promising mechanisms of action. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size
 
28

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
and type of the patient populations, changes in and adherence to the clinical trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Moreover, should there be an issue with the design of a clinical trial, our results may be impacted. We may not discover such a flaw until the clinical trial is at an advanced stage.
We may also experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidates, including:

the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials or be lost to follow-up at a higher rate than we anticipate, or may elect to participate in alternative clinical trials sponsored by our competitors with product candidates that treat the same indications as our product candidates;

regulators or institutional review boards, or IRBs, may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial, conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site, or amend trial protocols, or may require that we modify or amend our clinical trial protocols;

we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites and/or contract research organizations, or CROs;

clinical trials of our product candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, or our studies may fail to reach the necessary level of statistical significance, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;

our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or the clinical trial protocol, or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all, or we may be required to engage in additional clinical trial site monitoring;

we, regulators, or IRBs may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, undesirable side effects, or other unexpected characteristics of the product candidate, or due to findings of undesirable effects caused by a chemically or mechanistically similar therapeutic or therapeutic candidate;

changes could be adopted in marketing approval policies during the development period, rendering our data insufficient to obtain marketing approval;

statutes or regulations could be amended or new ones could be adopted, especially in light of the new Administration in the United States;

changes could be adopted in the regulatory review process for submitted product applications;

the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates may be greater than we anticipate or we may have insufficient funds for a clinical trial or to pay the substantial user fees required by the FDA upon the filing of a Biologics License Application, or BLA, or equivalent authorizations from comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate or we may not be able to obtain them on favorable terms due to reasons, such as international trade policies;

we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct or gather, as applicable, additional clinical trials, analyses, reports, data, or preclinical trials, or we may abandon product development programs;

we may fail to reach an agreement with regulators or IRBs regarding the scope, design, or implementation of our clinical trials, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require changes to our study designs that make further study impractical or not financially prudent;

regulators may ultimately disagree with the design or our conduct of our preclinical studies or clinical trials, finding that they do not support product candidate approval;
 
29

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

we may have delays in adding new investigators or clinical trial sites, or we may experience a withdrawal of clinical trial sites;

patients that enroll in our studies may misrepresent their eligibility or may otherwise not comply with the clinical trial protocol, resulting in the need to drop the patients from the study or clinical trial, increase the needed enrollment size for the clinical trial or extend its duration;

there may be regulatory questions or disagreements regarding interpretations of data and results;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our study design, including endpoints, or our interpretation of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials or find that a product candidate’s benefits do not outweigh its safety risks;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from studies with clinical trial sites in foreign countries;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our intended indications;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve or subsequently find fault with the manufacturing processes or our manufacturing facilities for clinical and future commercial supplies;

the data collected from clinical trials, including our registration directed or registration intended trials, of our product candidates may not be sufficient to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to support the submission of a BLA or other comparable submission in foreign jurisdictions or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may take longer than we anticipate to make a decision on our product candidates;

we may not be able to demonstrate that a product candidate provides an advantage over current standards of care or current or future competitive therapies in development; and

we, the third parties on which we rely, and the FDA may have delays in the conduct of our respective operations as a result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which could result in delays or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidates.
Our development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or approvals, and we may not have sufficient funding to complete the testing and approval process for any of our product candidates. We may be required to obtain additional funds to complete clinical trials and prepare for possible commercialization of our product candidates. We do not know whether any preclinical tests or clinical trials beyond what we currently have planned will be required, will begin as planned, will need to be restructured, or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant delays relating to any preclinical or clinical trials also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, delays in clinical trials may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of any of our product candidates. If any of these occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
We anticipate that our product candidates will be used in combination with third-party drugs, some of which are still in development, and we have limited or no control over the supply, regulatory status, or regulatory approval of such drugs.
Our product candidates may be administered in combination with checkpoint blockade drugs, a class of drugs that are intended to stop tumor cells from “switching off” an immune system attack against themselves. We have entered into agreements with BMS for the supply of nivolumab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for use in connection with our ongoing IGNYTE Phase 1/2 trials with RP1 and our clinical trial with RP2. We have also entered into a clinical collaboration agreement with Regeneron, which includes the supply of cemiplimab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for clinical trials conducted thereunder. We are enrolling patients in the CERPASS trial, our first planned clinical trial under the Regeneron agreement. We may enter into additional
 
30

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
agreements for the supply of anti-PD-1 products for use in combination with and for the continued development of one or more of our product candidates. Our ability to develop and ultimately commercialize our product candidates used in combination with nivolumab, cemiplimab or any other checkpoint blockade therapy will depend on our ability to access such drugs on commercially reasonable terms for the clinical trials and their availability for use with the commercialized product, if approved. We cannot be certain that current or potential future commercial relationships will provide us with a steady supply of such drugs on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Any failure to maintain or enter into new successful commercial relationships, or the expense of purchasing checkpoint blockade therapies in the market, may delay our development timelines, increase our costs and jeopardize our ability to develop our product candidates as commercially viable therapies. If any of these occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
Moreover, the development of our product candidates for use in combination with another product or product candidate may present challenges that are not faced for single agent product candidates. While we have opened a clinical trial for use of RP1 as a monotherapy, we are generally developing RP1 and our other product candidates for use in combination with anti-PD-1 or potentially anti-PDL1 therapies and may develop RP1 or our other product candidates for use with other therapies. Although we intend our IGNYTE anti-PD-1 failed melanoma cohort and our CERPASS trial to be registration directed, the FDA may require us to use more complex clinical trial designs in order to evaluate the contribution of each product and product candidate to any observed effects. It is possible that the results of these trials could show that any positive previous trial results are attributable to the therapy with which our products were combined and not our product candidates. Moreover, following product approval, the FDA may require that products used in conjunction with each other be cross-labeled for combined use. To the extent that we do not have rights to the other product, this may require us to work with a third party to satisfy such a requirement. Moreover, developments related to the other product may impact our clinical trials for the combination as well as our commercial prospects should we receive marketing approval. Such developments may include changes to the other product’s safety or efficacy profile, changes to the availability of the approved product, and changes to the standard of care.
In the event that BMS, Regeneron or any future collaborator or supplier cannot continue to supply their products on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we would need to identify alternatives for accessing an anti-PD-1 therapy. Additionally, should the supply of products from BMS, Regeneron or any future collaborator or supplier be interrupted, delayed or otherwise be unavailable to us, our clinical trials may be delayed, interrupted or halted. In the event we are unable to source a supply of an acceptable alternative anti-PD-1 therapy, or are unable to do so on commercially reasonable terms, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
If we fail to develop additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity could be limited.
Our lead product candidate is RP1. A key part of our strategy is to pursue clinical development of RP1 and additional product candidates, including RP2 and RP3. Developing, obtaining marketing approval for, and commercializing additional product candidates will require substantial additional funding and will be subject to the risks of failure inherent in medical product development. We cannot assure our shareholders that we will be able to successfully advance any of these additional product candidates through the development process.
Even if we obtain approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to market additional product candidates for the treatment of solid tumors, we cannot assure our shareholders that any such product candidates will be successfully commercialized, widely accepted in the marketplace, or more effective than other commercially available alternatives. If we are unable to successfully develop and commercialize additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited and our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
 
31

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Risks related to regulatory approval
Even if our development efforts are successful, we may not obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates in the United States or other jurisdictions, which would prevent us from commercializing our product candidates. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, any such approval may be subject to limitations, including with respect to the approved indications or patient populations, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates.
We are not permitted to market or promote or sell any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy for that indication. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites by, the regulatory authorities. If we do not receive approval from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for any of our product candidates, we will not be able to commercialize such product candidates in the United States or in other jurisdictions. If significant delays in obtaining approval for and commercializing our product candidates occur in any jurisdictions, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects will be materially harmed. Even if our product candidates are approved, they may:

be subject to limitations on the indicated uses or patient populations for which they may be marketed, distribution restrictions, or other conditions of approval;

contain significant safety warnings, including boxed warnings, contraindications, and precautions;

not be approved with label statements necessary or desirable for successful commercialization; or

contain requirements for costly post-market testing and surveillance, or other requirements, including the submission of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, to monitor the safety or efficacy of the products.
We have not previously submitted a BLA to the FDA, or a similar marketing application to comparable foreign regulatory authorities, for any product candidate, and we can provide no assurance that we will ultimately be successful in obtaining regulatory approval for claims that are necessary or desirable for successful marketing, or at all.
The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable. If we are not able to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates as expected, and our ability to generate revenue may be materially impaired.
The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions and there may be varying interpretations of data obtained from preclinical studies or clinical trials, any of which may cause delays or limitations in the approval or a decision not to approve an application. These regulatory requirements may require us to amend our clinical trial protocols, conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials that may require regulatory or IRB approval, or otherwise cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Any delay in obtaining or failure to obtain required approvals could materially adversely affect our ability to generate revenue from the particular product candidate, which may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
If we experience delays in obtaining approval, if we fail to obtain approval of a product candidate or if the label for a product candidate does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate, the commercial prospects for such product candidate may be harmed and our ability to generate revenues from that product candidate may be materially impaired.
 
32

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
The FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority may determine that our product candidates have undesirable side effects that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval or commercialization.
There can be no assurance that undesirable side effects or serious adverse events will not be caused by or associated with RP1 or our other product candidates as they continue through or enter clinical development. Serious adverse events or undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us, IRBs, and other reviewing entities or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. For example, if concerns are raised regarding the safety of a new therapeutic as a result of undesirable side effects identified during clinical or preclinical testing, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may order us to cease further development, decline to approve the product candidate or issue a letter requesting additional data or information prior to making a final decision regarding whether or not to approve the product candidate. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, or IRBs and other reviewing entities, may also require, or we may voluntarily develop, strategies for managing adverse events during clinical development, which could include restrictions on our enrollment criteria, the use of stopping criteria, adjustments to a study’s design, or the monitoring of safety data by a data monitoring committee, among other strategies. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority requests for additional data or information could also result in substantial delays in the approval of our product candidates.
Undesirable side effects caused by any of our product candidates could also result in denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for any or all targeted indications or the inclusion of unfavorable information in our product labeling, such as limitations on the indicated uses for which the products may be marketed or distributed, a label with significant safety warnings, including boxed warnings, contraindications, and precautions, a label without statements necessary or desirable for successful commercialization, or may result in requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance, or other requirements, including REMS, to monitor the safety or efficacy of the products, and in turn prevent us from commercializing and generating revenues from the sale of our product candidates. Undesirable side effects may limit the potential market for any approved products or could result in the discontinuation of the sales and marketing of the product, or withdrawal of product approvals. Later discovered undesirable side effects may further result in the imposition of a REMS, label revisions, post approval study requirements, or other testing and surveillance.
If any of our product candidates is associated with serious adverse events or undesirable side effects or have properties that are unexpected, we may need to abandon development or limit development of that product candidate to certain uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk/benefit perspective. The therapeutic-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Changes in product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.
As product candidates are developed through preclinical studies to later stage clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the altered materials. Such changes may also require additional testing, or notification to, or approval by the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority. This could delay completion of clinical trials, require the conduct of bridging clinical trials or studies, require the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates and/or jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue.
Regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities is limited to those specific indications and conditions for which approval has been granted, and we may be subject to substantial fines, criminal penalties, injunctions, or other enforcement actions if we are determined to be promoting the use of our products for unapproved or “off label” uses, resulting in damage to our reputation and business.
We must comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Promotional communications with respect to therapeutics are
 
33

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and continuing review by the FDA, Department of Justice, Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Inspector General, state attorneys general, members of Congress, and the public. When the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities issue regulatory approval for a product candidate, the regulatory approval is limited to those specific uses and indications for which a product is approved. If we are not able to obtain FDA approval for desired uses or indications for our product candidates, we may not market or promote them for those indications and uses, referred to as off label uses, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed. We also must sufficiently substantiate any claims that we make for our products, including claims comparing our products to other companies’ products, and must abide by the FDA’s strict requirements regarding the content of promotion and advertising.
While physicians may choose to prescribe products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and for uses that differ from those tested in clinical trials and approved by the regulatory authorities, we are prohibited from marketing and promoting the products for indications and uses that are not specifically approved by the FDA. These off label uses are common across medical specialties and may constitute an appropriate treatment for some patients in varied circumstances. Regulatory authorities in the United States generally do not restrict or regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatment within the practice of medicine. Regulatory authorities do, however, restrict communications by biopharmaceutical companies concerning off label use.
If we are found to have impermissibly promoted any of our product candidates, we may become subject to significant liability and government fines. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations regarding product promotion, particularly those prohibiting the promotion of off label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted a product may be subject to significant sanctions. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.
In the United States, engaging in the impermissible promotion of our products, following approval, for off label uses can also subject us to false claims and other litigation under federal and state statutes. These include fraud and abuse and consumer protection laws, which can lead to civil and criminal penalties and fines and agreements with governmental authorities that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute therapeutic products and conduct our business. These restrictions could include corporate integrity agreements, suspension or exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, and suspension and debarment from government contracts and refusal of orders under existing government contracts. These False Claims Act lawsuits against manufacturers of drugs and biologics have increased significantly in volume and breadth. In addition, False Claims Act lawsuits may expose manufacturers to follow-on claims by private payers based on fraudulent marketing practices. This growth in litigation has increased the risk that a biopharmaceutical company will have to defend a false claim action, pay settlement fines or restitution, as well as criminal and civil penalties, agree to comply with burdensome reporting and compliance obligations, and be excluded from Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal and state healthcare programs. If we do not lawfully promote our approved products, if any, we may become subject to such litigation and, if we do not successfully defend against such actions, those actions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
In the United States, the promotion of biopharmaceutical products is subject to additional FDA requirements and restrictions on promotional statements. If after one or more of our product candidates obtains marketing approval the FDA determines that our promotional activities violate its regulations and policies pertaining to product promotion, it could request that we modify our promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or other enforcement actions, including issuance of warning letters or untitled letters, suspension or withdrawal of an approved product from the market, requests for recalls, payment of civil fines, disgorgement of money, imposition of operating restrictions, injunctions or criminal prosecution, and other enforcement actions. Similarly, industry codes in foreign jurisdictions may prohibit companies from engaging in certain promotional activities and regulatory agencies in various countries may enforce violations of such codes with civil penalties. If we become subject to regulatory and enforcement actions our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects will be materially harmed.
 
34

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, we will be subject to ongoing obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense and limit how we manufacture and market our products.
Any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval will be subject to extensive and ongoing requirements of and review by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including requirements related to the manufacturing processes, post approval clinical data, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, shortage reporting, risk management plans, supply chain security, storage, recordkeeping, export, import, advertising, marketing, and promotional activities for such product. These requirements further include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information, including manufacturing deviations and reports, registration and listing requirements, the payment of annual fees, continued compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance, and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, and good clinical practices, or GCPs, for any clinical trials that we conduct post approval.
The FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities will continue to closely monitor the safety profile of any product even after approval. If the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities become aware of new safety information after approval of any of our product candidates, they may withdraw approval, issue public safety alerts, require labeling changes or establishment of a REMS or similar strategy, impose significant restrictions on a product’s indicated uses or marketing, or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post approval studies or post-market surveillance. Any such restrictions could limit sales of the product.
We and any of our suppliers or collaborators, including our contract manufacturers, could be subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA to monitor and ensure compliance with cGMPs and other FDA regulatory requirements. Application holders must further notify the FDA, and depending on the nature of the change, obtain FDA preapproval for product and manufacturing changes.
In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or that the product is less effective than previously thought or other problems with our products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements both before and after approval, may yield various negative results, including:

restrictions on manufacturing, distribution, or marketing of such products;

restrictions on the labeling, including required additional warnings, such as black boxed warnings, contraindications, precautions, and restrictions on the approved indication or use;

modifications to promotional pieces;

issuance of corrective information;

requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or other clinical trials;

clinical holds or termination of clinical trials;

requirements to establish or modify a REMS or similar strategy;

changes to the way the product candidate is administered;

liability for harm caused to patients or subjects;

reputational harm;

the product becoming less competitive;

warning, untitled, or cyber letters;

suspension of marketing or withdrawal of the products from the market;

regulatory authority issuance of safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases, or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product candidate;

refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;
 
35

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

recalls of products;

fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;

suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;

refusal to permit the import or export of our products;

product seizure or detention;

FDA debarment, suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, consent decrees, or corporate integrity agreements; or

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties, including imprisonment.
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, or could substantially increase the costs and expenses of commercializing such product, which in turn could delay or prevent us from generating significant revenues from its marketing and sale. Any of these events could further have other material and adverse effects on our operations and business and could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
The FDA’s policies or those of comparable foreign regulatory authorities may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates, limit the marketability of our product candidates, or impose additional regulatory obligations on us. Changes in medical practice and standard of care may also impact the marketability of our product candidates.
If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements, standards of care, or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and be subject to regulatory enforcement action.
Should any of the above actions take place, we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability. Further, the cost of compliance with post approval regulations may have a negative effect on our operations and business and could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Obtaining and maintaining marketing approval for our product candidates in one jurisdiction would not mean that we will be successful in obtaining marketing approval of that product candidate in other jurisdictions, which could prevent us from marketing our products internationally.
Obtaining and maintaining marketing approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction would not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain marketing approval in any other jurisdiction, while a failure or delay in obtaining marketing approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the marketing approval process in others. For example, even if the FDA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, comparable foreign regulatory authorities must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion of the product candidate in those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from and, in some cases, greater than, those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval. Additionally, with the full departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union in January 2021, commonly referred to as Brexit, there is continuing regulatory uncertainty. Since a significant proportion of the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom is derived from European Union directives and regulations, and the degree to which the United Kingdom and European Union regulatory regimes align or diverge could materially impact the execution of our clinical trials or approval of our product candidates in the United Kingdom or the European Union.
 
36

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Regulatory authorities in jurisdictions outside of the United States have requirements for approval of product candidates with which we must comply prior to marketing in those jurisdictions. Obtaining foreign marketing approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets and/or receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed. If we obtain approval for any product candidate and ultimately commercialize that product in foreign markets, we would be subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements and the reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries.
Risks related to commercialization
If we are unable to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we receive regulatory approval, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
If we are successful in obtaining marketing approval from applicable regulatory authorities for RP1 or any of our other product candidates, our ability to generate revenues from our product candidates will depend on our success in:

launching commercial sales of our product candidates, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

receiving an approved label with claims that are necessary or desirable for successful marketing, and that does not contain safety or other limitations that would impede our ability to market the product candidates;

creating market demand for our product candidates through marketing, sales and promotion activities;

hiring, training, and deploying a sales force or contracting with third parties to commercialize product candidates in the United States;

manufacturing product candidates in sufficient quantities and at acceptable quality and cost to meet commercial demand at launch and thereafter;

establishing and maintaining agreements with wholesalers, distributors, and group purchasing organizations on commercially reasonable terms;

creating partnerships with, or offering licenses to, third parties to promote and sell product candidates in foreign markets where we receive marketing approval;

maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;

achieving market acceptance of our product candidates by patients, the medical community, and third-party payors;

achieving appropriate reimbursement for our product candidates;

effectively competing with other therapies; and

maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of our product candidates following launch.
To the extent we are not able to do any of the foregoing, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects will be materially harmed.
We face significant competition from other biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government agencies, and other research organizations, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products more quickly or marketing them more successfully than us. If their product candidates are shown to be safer or more effective than ours, our commercial opportunity may be reduced or eliminated.
The development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapy products is characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary rights. We face
 
37

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
competition with respect to our current product candidates, and will face competition with respect to any product candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major biopharmaceutical companies, specialty biopharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies worldwide. There are a number of large biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products or are pursuing the development of products for the treatment of solid tumors, including oncolytic immunotherapy and cancer vaccine approaches. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection, and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization.
While our product candidates are intended to be used in combination with other drugs with different mechanisms of action, if and when marketed they will still compete with a number of drugs that are currently marketed or in development that also target cancer. To compete effectively with these drugs, our product candidates will need to demonstrate advantages in clinical efficacy and safety compared to these competitors when used alone or in combination with other drugs.
Our commercial opportunities could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are easier to administer or are less expensive alone or in combination with other therapies than any products that we may develop alone or in combination with other therapies. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payors coverage decisions.
Certain of the companies with which we are competing or may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the biopharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in developing or acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. If we are unable to successfully compete with these companies our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
If we are unable to establish effective marketing, sales and distribution capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, if they are approved, the revenues that we generate may be limited and we may never become profitable.
We currently do not have a commercial infrastructure for the marketing, sale, and distribution of our product candidates. If and when our product candidates receive marketing approval, we intend to commercialize our product candidates on our own in the United States and potentially with pharmaceutical or biotechnology partners in other geographies. In order to commercialize our products, we must build our marketing, sales, and distribution capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services. We may not be successful in doing so. Should we decide to move forward in developing our own marketing capabilities, we may incur expenses prior to product launch or even approval in order to recruit a sales force and develop a marketing and sales infrastructure. If a commercial launch is delayed as a result of FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority requirements or other reasons, we would incur these expenses prior to being able to realize any revenue from sales of our product candidates. Even if we are able to effectively hire a sales force and develop a marketing and sales infrastructure, our sales force and marketing teams may not be successful in commercializing our product candidates. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.
We may also or alternatively decide to collaborate with third-party marketing and sales organizations to commercialize any approved product candidates in the United States, in which event, our ability to generate product revenues may be limited. To the extent we rely on third parties to commercialize any products for
 
38

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
which we obtain regulatory approval, we may receive less revenues than if we commercialized these products ourselves, which could materially harm our prospects. In addition, we would have less control over the sales efforts of any other third parties involved in our commercialization efforts, and could be held liable if they failed to comply with applicable legal or regulatory requirements.
We have no prior experience in the marketing, sale, and distribution of biopharmaceutical products, and there are significant risks involved in building and managing a commercial infrastructure. The establishment and development of commercial capabilities, including compliance plans, to market any products we may develop will be expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch, and we may not be able to successfully develop this capability. We will have to compete with other biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including oncology-focused companies, to recruit, hire, train, manage, and retain marketing and sales personnel, which is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. Developing our sales capabilities may also divert resources and management attention away from product development.
In the event we are unable to develop a marketing and sales infrastructure, we may not be able to commercialize our product candidates in the United States or elsewhere, which could limit our ability to generate product revenues and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our product candidates include:

the inability to recruit, train, manage, and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe our product candidates;

our inability to effectively oversee a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team;

the costs associated with training sales and marketing personnel on legal and regulatory compliance matters and monitoring their actions;

an inability to secure adequate coverage and reimbursement by government and private health plans;

the clinical indications for which the products are approved and the claims that we may make for the products;

limitations or warnings, including distribution or use restrictions, contained in the products’ approved labeling;

any distribution and use restrictions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or to which we agree as part of a mandatory REMS or voluntary risk management plan;

liability for sales or marketing personnel who fail to comply with the applicable legal and regulatory requirements;

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization or engaging a contract sales organization.
Our product candidates are based on a novel approach to the treatment of cancer, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development.
We have concentrated all of our research and development efforts on product candidates based on our Immulytic platform, and our future success depends on the successful development of this therapeutic approach. There can be no assurance that any development problems we experience in the future will not cause significant delays or unanticipated costs, or that such development problems can be solved. Should we encounter development problems, including unfavorable preclinical or clinical trial results, the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities may refuse to approve our product candidates, or may require additional information, tests, or trials, which could significantly delay product development and significantly increase our development costs. Moreover, even if we are able to provide the requested information or trials to the
 
39

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
FDA, there would be no guarantee that the FDA would accept them or approve our product candidates. We may also experience delays in developing a sustainable, reproducible and scalable manufacturing process, or developing or qualifying and validating product release assays, other testing and manufacturing methods, and our equipment and facilities in a timely manner, which may prevent us from completing our clinical trials or commercializing our product candidates on a timely or profitable basis, if at all.
In addition, the clinical trial requirements of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities and the criteria these regulators use to determine the safety and efficacy of a product candidate vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use and market of the potential products. The FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities have limited experience with the approval of oncolytic immunotherapies. Only one oncolytic immunotherapy, T-Vec, has received FDA approval to date. Any product candidates that are approved may be subject to extensive post approval regulatory requirements, including requirements pertaining to manufacturing, distribution, and promotion. We may need to devote significant time and resources to compliance with these requirements.
If our product candidates do not achieve broad market acceptance, the revenues that we generate from their sales may be limited, and we may never become profitable.
We have never commercialized a product candidate for any indication. Even if our product candidates are approved by the appropriate regulatory authorities for marketing and sale, they may not gain acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors, and others in the medical community. If any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval do not gain an adequate level of market acceptance, we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability. Market acceptance of our product candidates by the medical community, patients, and third party payors will depend on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. For example, physicians are often reluctant to switch their patients and patients may be reluctant to switch from existing therapies even when new and potentially more effective or safer treatments enter the market.
Efforts to educate the medical community and third party payors on the benefits of our product candidates may require significant resources and may not be successful. If any of our product candidates is approved but does not achieve an adequate level of market acceptance, we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability. The degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy of our product candidates in combination with marketed checkpoint blockade drugs;

the commercial success of the checkpoint blockade drugs with which our products are co-administered;

the prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with our product candidates or those products with which they are co-administered;

the clinical indications for which the products are approved and the approved claims that we may make for the products;

limitations or warnings contained in the product’s FDA-approved labeling or those of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including potential limitations or warnings for our product candidates that may be more restrictive than other competitive products;

changes in the standard of care for the targeted indications for our product candidates, which could reduce the marketing impact of any claims that we could make following FDA approval or approval by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, if obtained;

the relative convenience and ease of administration of our product candidates by direct injection into tumors, a less common method for the administration of oncology therapies than systemic administration, which may result in slower adoption of our therapies;

the relative convenience and ease of administration of any products with which our product candidates are co-administered;

the cost of treatment compared with the economic and clinical benefit of alternative treatments or therapies;
 
40

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

the availability of adequate coverage or reimbursement by third parties, such as insurance companies and other healthcare payors, and by government healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid;

the price concessions required by third-party payors to obtain coverage;

the extent and strength of our marketing and distribution of our product candidates;

the safety, efficacy, and other potential advantages over, and availability of, alternative treatments already used or that may later be approved;

distribution and use restrictions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities with respect to our product candidates or to which we agree as part of a REMS or voluntary risk management plan;

the timing of market introduction of our product candidates, as well as competitive products;

our ability to offer our product candidates for sale at competitive prices;

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

the extent and strength of our third-party manufacturer and supplier support;

the actions of companies that market any products with which our product candidates are co-administered;

the approval of other new products;

adverse publicity about our product candidates or any products with which they are co-administered, or favorable publicity about competitive products; and

potential product liability claims.
The size of the potential market for our product candidates is difficult to estimate and, if any of our assumptions are inaccurate, the actual markets for our product candidates may be smaller than our estimates.
The potential market opportunities for our product candidates are difficult to estimate and will depend in large part on the drugs with which our product candidates are co-administered and the success of competing therapies and therapeutic approaches. In particular, the market opportunity for oncolytic immunotherapies is hard to estimate given that it is an emerging field with only one existing FDA-approved oncolytic immunotherapy, T-Vec, which has yet to enjoy broad market acceptance. Our estimates of the potential market opportunities are predicated on many assumptions, which may include industry knowledge and publications, third-party research reports, and other surveys. Although we believe that our internal assumptions are reasonable, these assumptions involve the exercise of significant judgment on the part of our management, are inherently uncertain, and their reasonableness has not been assessed by an independent source. If any of the assumptions proves to be inaccurate, the actual markets for our product candidates could be smaller than our estimates of the potential market opportunities.
Negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology could damage public perception of our product candidates and negatively affect our business.
The commercial success of our product candidates will depend in part on public acceptance of the use of cancer immunotherapies. Adverse events in clinical trials of RP1 or our other product candidates or in clinical trials of others developing similar products and the resulting publicity, as well as any other negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology that may occur in the future, including in connection with competitor therapies, could result in a decrease in demand for our product candidates. These events could also result in the suspension, discontinuation, or clinical hold of or modification to our clinical trials. If public perception is influenced by claims that the use of cancer immunotherapies is unsafe, whether related to our therapies or those of our competitors, our product candidates may not be accepted by the general public or the medical community and potential clinical trial subjects may be discouraged from enrolling in our clinical trials. As a result, we may not be able to continue or may be delayed in conducting our development programs.
 
41

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
As our product candidates consist of a modified virus, adverse developments in antiviral vaccines or clinical trials of other oncolytic immunotherapy products based on viruses may result in a disproportionately negative effect for our product candidates as compared to other products in the field of immuno-oncology that are not based on viruses. Future negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology or the biopharmaceutical industry could also result in greater governmental regulation, stricter labeling requirements and potential regulatory delays in the testing or approvals of our products. Any increased scrutiny could delay or increase the costs of obtaining marketing approval for our product candidates.
Risks related to our financial position and need for additional capital
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a very limited operating history. We have incurred net losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing net losses in the foreseeable future. We may never achieve or sustain profitability.
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history, and we are early in our development efforts. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and we continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile, gain marketing approval and become commercially viable. We have financed our operations to date primarily through the sale of equity securities, including the sale of our common stock and pre-funded warrants in our public offerings. Since our inception, most of our resources have been dedicated to the preclinical and clinical development of our Immulytic platform, RP1 and our other product candidates. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on our future expenses and our ability to generate revenue, if any.
We are not profitable and have incurred losses in each period since our inception. For the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, we reported a net loss of $80.9 million and $52.6 million, respectively. At March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $193.2 million. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our research and development of, and seek marketing approvals for, RP1, our other product candidates and any additional product candidates we may develop.
Even if we succeed in receiving marketing approval for and commercialize RP1 or our other product candidates, we will continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenditures to develop and market additional potential products. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.
We have never generated any revenue from product sales, and our ability to generate revenue from product sales and become profitable will depend significantly on our success in achieving a number of goals.
We have no products approved for commercial sale, have not generated any revenue from product sales, and do not anticipate generating any revenue from product sales until after we have received marketing approval for the commercial sale of a product candidate, if ever. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our success in achieving a number of goals, including:

completing research regarding, and preclinical and clinical development of, RP1 and our other product candidates;

obtaining marketing approvals for RP1 and our other product candidates for which we complete clinical trials;

developing a sustainable and scalable manufacturing process for RP1 and our other product candidates, including establishing and maintaining commercially viable supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties;
 
42

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

launching and commercializing RP1 and our other product candidates for which we obtain marketing approvals, either directly or with a collaborator or distributor;

obtaining market acceptance of RP1 and our other product candidates as viable treatment options;

addressing any competing technological and market developments;

identifying, assessing, acquiring and developing new product candidates;

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing, or other arrangements into which we may enter;

obtaining, maintaining, protecting, and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, and know-how; and

attracting, hiring, and retaining qualified personnel.
Even if our product candidates or any future product candidates that we develop are approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any such product candidate. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to change our manufacturing processes or assays, or to perform clinical, nonclinical, or other types of studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate.
If we are successful in obtaining regulatory approvals to market RP1 or our other product candidates, our revenue will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain marketing approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to get reimbursement at any price, and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of our addressable patients is not as significant as we estimate, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, the labels for our product candidates contain significant safety warnings, regulatory authorities impose burdensome or restrictive distribution requirements, or the reasonably accepted patient population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products, even if approved. If we are not able to generate revenue from the sale of any approved products, we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability.
We will require additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.
Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. At March 31, 2021, our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments were $476.3 million. We expect to continue to spend substantial amounts to continue the clinical and preclinical development of RP1 and our other product candidates. Accordingly, we will need to obtain additional funds to achieve our business objectives. If we are able to gain marketing approval of any product candidate, we will require significant additional amounts of cash in order to launch and commercialize such product. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise.
Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing RP1 and our other product candidates, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials;

the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining marketing approvals for RP1 and our other product candidates if clinical trials are successful;

the success of any collaborations;

the cost of commercialization activities for any approved product, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;

the cost and timing of operating our manufacturing facility;

the cost of manufacturing RP1 and our other product candidates for clinical trials in preparation for marketing approval and commercialization;
 
43

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

our ability to establish and maintain strategic licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;

the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, expanding, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation;

the timing, receipt, and amount of sales of, or royalties on, our future products, if any; and

the emergence of competing cancer therapies and other adverse market developments.
We do not have any committed external source of funds or other support for our development efforts. Until we can generate sufficient product revenue to finance our cash requirements, which we may never do, we expect to finance our future cash needs through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing or distribution arrangements. Based on our research and development plans, we expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will enable us to fund our planned operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into the second half of 2024. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could exhaust our available capital resources sooner than we expect. In addition, because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of RP1 or our other product candidates.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights for our technology and product candidates, or if our intellectual property rights are inadequate, our competitive position could be harmed.
Our commercial success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our technology, Immulytic platform, RP1 and our other product candidates. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, and confidentiality, licensing and other agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection.
The patent positions of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally are highly uncertain, involve complex legal and factual questions and have in recent years been the subject of much litigation and subject to change with regulatory agencies and court decisions. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our licensed patents and any patents we own in the future are highly uncertain. The steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information, use by third parties of our products or infringement of our intellectual property rights, both inside and outside of the United States.
Our pending applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the inventions claimed in such applications unless and until a patent issues from such applications. Because the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, our issued patents and issued patents that we license from third parties or may own in the future may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Further, the examination process may require us to narrow the claims for our pending patent applications, which may limit the scope of patent protection that may be obtained if these applications issue. The scope of a patent may also be interpreted or reinterpreted after issuance. The rights that may be granted under our future issued patents may not provide us with the proprietary protection or competitive advantages we are seeking. Although we enter into nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, collaborators, and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. In addition, the patent prosecution process is expensive, time consuming and complex, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology or inventions, or for RP1 or our other product candidates, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficient, our competitors could develop and
 
44

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
commercialize products similar or superior to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize RP1 or our other product candidates and future technologies or inventions may be adversely affected.
Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our products for an adequate amount of time, and our product candidates for which we intend to seek approval as biological products may face competition sooner than anticipated. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of our product candidates, such as RP1 and our other product candidates, patents protecting such product candidates might expire before or shortly after such product candidates are commercialized.
Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our technology or inventions in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries or religions outside the United States can be less protective of our products than those in the United States. In addition, the laws and practices of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Changes to the patent law in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect RP1 and our other product candidates. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies or inventions in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop and/or manufacture their own products and may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products and our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from so competing.
Protecting against the unauthorized use of our patented inventions, trademarks and other intellectual property rights is expensive, time consuming, difficult and in some cases may not be possible. In some cases, it may be difficult or impossible to detect third-party infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property rights, even in relation to issued patent claims, and proving any such infringement or misappropriation may be even more difficult. If we are unable to obtain, maintain, and protect our intellectual property our competitive advantage could be harmed, and it could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
In addition to seeking patent protection, we also rely on other proprietary rights, including protection of trade secrets, know-how and confidential and proprietary information. Although we enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, collaborators, suppliers, manufacturers and other third parties who have access to our trade secrets, and our agreements with employees also provide that any inventions conceived by the individual in the course of rendering services to us shall be our exclusive property, we may not obtain these agreements in all circumstances, and individuals with whom we have these agreements may not comply with their terms or may have conflicting agreements with third parties. In addition, in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets or proprietary information, these agreements, even if obtained, may not provide meaningful protection, particularly for our trade secrets or other confidential information. To the extent that our employees, consultants or contractors use technology or know-how owned by third parties in their work for us, disputes may arise between us and those third parties as to the rights in related inventions. If any of our trade secrets, know-how or confidential or proprietary information were to be lawfully obtained, patented or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us and may be blocked from using such trade secrets, know-how or confidential or proprietary information ourselves. The disclosure of our trade secrets or the independent development of our trade secrets by a competitor or other third party would impair our competitive position and may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Third parties may in the future initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we may become involved in lawsuits or other administrative procedures to protect or enforce our intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful and have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
Our commercial success depends on our ability and the ability of our current or future collaborators to develop, manufacture, market and sell RP1 and our other product candidates, and to use our related
 
45

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. We may become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our current and any other future product candidates. Third parties may assert infringement or other intellectual property claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be filed and/or granted in the future. At times we may attempt to initiate litigation or other administrative procedures to invalidate or otherwise limit the scope of a third party’s intellectual property and these attempts may not be successful. If we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, and we are unsuccessful in demonstrating that such intellectual property rights are invalid, unenforceable or otherwise not infringed, we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to continue developing, manufacturing and commercializing RP1 and our other product candidates. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be nonexclusive, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies and inventions licensed to us, and it could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. We also could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing, and commercializing RP1 or our other product candidates or we could be found liable for significant monetary damages if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects. Any claims by third parties that we have misappropriated their know-how, confidential or proprietary information or trade secrets could have a similar material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
If we or one of our licensing partners initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering any of our technology or inventions, the defendant could counterclaim that the patent covering our product candidate is invalid or unenforceable. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on RP1 and our other product candidates. Such a loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Many of our employees, including our senior management team, were previously employed at, or consulted for, universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we take steps to ensure that our employees do not use, claim as theirs, or misappropriate the intellectual property, confidential or proprietary information, know-how or trade secrets of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees have used, claimed as theirs, misappropriated or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets, know-how or other confidential or proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel or sustain damages. Such intellectual property rights could be awarded to a third party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to commercialize our technology or products. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
In addition, we are developing certain of our product candidates in combination with nivolumab and cemiplimab, which are covered by patents or licenses held by BMS and Regeneron, respectively, to which we do not have a license other than for use in connection with the applicable clinical trial. We also may develop our product candidates in combination with products developed by additional companies that are covered by patents or licenses held by those entities to which we do not have a license. In the event that a labeling instruction is required in product packaging recommending that combination, we could be accused of, or held liable for, infringement of the third-party patents covering the product candidate or product recommended for administration with RP1 or our other product candidates. In such a case, we could be required to obtain a license from the other company or institution to use the required or desired package labeling, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Competitors may infringe any future licensed patents or any patent we own in the future or misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property rights. We may also be required to defend against claims of infringement and our licensed patents and any patents we own in the future may become
 
46

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
involved in priority or other intellectual property related disputes. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of our own intellectual property rights or the proprietary rights of others.
These proceedings can be expensive and time consuming. Many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to conduct intellectual property related litigations or proceedings than we can. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property. An adverse result in any litigation or other intellectual property related proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation in the United States, there is a risk that some of our trade secrets, know-how, or proprietary or confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments in any such proceedings. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of shares of our common stock. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Risks related to manufacturing and our reliance on third parties
We have agreements with BMS and Regeneron, and in the future may have agreements with other companies, to obtain the supply of anti-PD-1 therapies for the development of our product candidates. If our relationships with BMS, Regeneron, or any future collaborator or supplier are not successful, we may be delayed in completing the development of our product candidates.
We have entered into arrangements with BMS and Regeneron as part of our clinical development for RP1 and RP2. BMS is providing nivolumab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for use in our ongoing IGNYTE Phase 1/2 trials with RP1 and our clinical trial with RP2 and Regeneron is providing cemiplimab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for use in our ongoing CERPASS Phase 2 trial and may potentially do so for other clinical trials in the future. We may also enter into agreements with additional companies for the supply of anti-PD-1 therapies for use in the development of RP1 and our other product candidates. The outcome of these clinical trials is dependent both on the performance of our partners’ products and product candidates and also on our partners’ ability to deliver sufficient quantities of adequately produced product. Should any of our partners’ products or product candidates fail to produce the results that we anticipate, we may have to re-run clinical trials for RP1 or our other product candidates or may otherwise be delayed in the commercialization of RP1 or our other product candidates. Similarly, should any partner fail to provide us with a product or product candidate that suits our requirements, we may have to re-run clinical trials for RP1 or our other product candidates or may be otherwise delayed in the commercialization of RP1 or our other product candidates.
Our collaboration agreements with any future partners may not be successful, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates.
We may in the future seek collaboration arrangements with other parties for the development or commercialization of our product candidates. The success of any collaboration arrangements may depend on the efforts and activities of our collaborators. Collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these arrangements. Disagreements between parties to a collaboration arrangement regarding clinical development and commercialization matters can lead to delays in the development process or commercializing the applicable product candidate and, in some cases, termination of the collaboration arrangement.
Collaborations with biopharmaceutical companies and other third parties often are terminated or allowed to expire by the other party. Any such termination or expiration could adversely affect us financially and could harm our business reputation.
 
47

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Any future collaborations we might enter into may pose a number of risks, including the following:

collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;

collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates that achieve regulatory approval or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;

collaborators could fail to make timely regulatory submissions for a product candidate;

collaborators may not comply with all applicable regulatory requirements or may fail to report safety data in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could subject them or us to regulatory enforcement actions;

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or product candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

product candidates discovered in collaboration with us may be viewed by our collaborators as competitive with their own product candidates or products, which may cause collaborators to cease to devote resources to the commercialization of our product candidates;

a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidate or product;

disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time consuming and expensive;

collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation; and

collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability.
If any collaborations we might enter into in the future do not result in the successful development and commercialization of products or if one of our collaborators subsequently terminates its agreement with us, we may not receive any future research funding or milestone or royalty payments under such potential future collaboration. If we do not receive the funding we expect under the agreements, our development of our product candidates could be delayed and we may need additional resources to develop our product candidates and our product platform.
Additionally, if any future collaborator of ours is involved in a business combination, the collaborator might deemphasize or terminate development or commercialization of any product candidate it licenses to us. If one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may find it more difficult to attract new collaborators and our reputation in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected.
We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for any collaboration will depend upon, among other things, our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors.
 
48

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of a product candidate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund and undertake development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we fail to enter into collaborations and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to further develop our product candidates or bring them to market or continue to develop our product platform and our business may be materially and adversely affected.
We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct, supervise, and monitor our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If those third parties do not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials or failing to comply with regulatory requirements, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates or any other product candidates that we may develop in the future.
We rely on third-party CROs, study sites, and others to conduct, supervise, and monitor our preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates and do not currently plan to independently conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials of any other potential product candidates. We expect to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions, and clinical investigators, to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Although we have agreements governing their activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance and control only certain aspects of their activities. The failure of these third parties to successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines could substantially harm our business because we may be delayed in completing or unable to complete the studies required to support future approval of our product candidates, or we may not obtain marketing approval for or commercialize our product candidates in a timely manner or at all. Moreover, these agreements might terminate for a variety of reasons, including a failure to perform by the third parties. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements our product development activities would be delayed and our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
Our reliance on these third parties for development activities will reduce our control over these activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory, and scientific standards and our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. For example, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. We must also ensure that our preclinical trials are conducted in accordance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, regulations, as appropriate. Moreover, the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities require us to comply with standards, commonly referred to as GCPs for conducting, recording, and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. Regulatory authorities enforce these requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, clinical investigators, and trial sites. If we or any of our third parties fail to comply with applicable GCPs or other regulatory requirements, we or they may be subject to enforcement or other legal actions, the data generated in our trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional studies.
In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product candidates that were produced under cGMP regulations. Failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.
If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our preclinical studies or clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our trials may be repeated, extended, delayed, or terminated; we may not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining,
 
49

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
marketing approvals for our product candidates; we may not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our product candidates, or we or they may be subject to regulatory enforcement actions. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed. To the extent we are unable to successfully identify and manage the performance of third-party service providers in the future, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects may be materially harmed.
If any of our relationships with these third parties terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative providers or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. Switching or adding additional third parties involves additional cost and may result in delays that could compromise our ability to meet our desired development timelines.
We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute our products for the clinical trials that we conduct. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development, marketing approval, or commercialization of our product candidates, which could result in additional losses and deprive us of potential product revenue.
If the manufacturers upon which we rely fail to produce our product candidates in the volumes that we require on a timely basis, or fail to comply with stringent regulations applicable to biopharmaceutical manufacturers, we may face delays in the development and commercialization of, or be unable to meet demand for, our product candidates and may lose potential revenues.
We continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our clinical trial product supplies. As a result, there can be no assurance that our clinical development will not be limited, interrupted, or of satisfactory quality or continue to be available at acceptable prices.
We currently have only one contract manufacturer for our product candidates for use in our clinical trials. In addition, we do not have any long-term commitments from our suppliers of clinical trial material or guaranteed prices for our product candidates or their components. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP regulations and that are both capable of manufacturing and filling our viral product for us and willing to do so. If our existing third-party manufacturers, or the third parties that we engage in the future, should cease to work with us, we likely would experience delays in obtaining sufficient quantities of our product candidates for us to meet commercial demand or to advance our clinical trials while we identify and qualify replacement suppliers. Any replacement of our contract manufacturer could require significant effort and expertise because there may be a limited number of qualified replacements. Any delays in obtaining adequate supplies of our product candidates that meet the necessary quality standards may delay our development or commercialization.
If our manufacturers do not perform as agreed or encounter difficulties in production costs and yields, quality control, shortages of qualified personnel or key raw materials, compliance with strictly enforced federal, state, and foreign regulations, or other difficulties, our ability to provide product candidates to patients in our clinical trials could be jeopardized.
In addition, if our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities, they will not be able to secure or maintain regulatory approval for their manufacturing facilities. Any such deviations may also require remedial measures that may be costly and/or time consuming for us or a third party to implement and that may include the temporary or permanent suspension of a clinical trial or the temporary or permanent closure of a facility. Any such remedial measures imposed upon us or third parties with whom we contract could materially harm our business. Any delays in obtaining products or product candidates that comply with the applicable regulatory requirements may result in delays to clinical trials, product approvals, and commercialization.
While we are ultimately responsible for the manufacturing of our product candidates and therapeutic substances, other than through our contractual arrangements, we have little control over our manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if it withdraws any such
 
50

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our product candidates, if approved. We must also receive FDA approval for the use of any new manufacturers for commercial supply.
A failure to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements, including periodic regulatory inspections, may result in regulatory enforcement actions against our manufacturers or us (including fines and civil and criminal penalties, including imprisonment) suspension or restrictions of production, injunctions, delay or denial of product approval or supplements to approved products, clinical holds or termination of clinical trials, warning or untitled letters, regulatory authority communications warning the public about safety issues with the product candidate, refusal to permit the import or export of the products, product seizure, detention, or recall, operating restrictions, suits under the civil False Claims Act, corporate integrity agreements, consent decrees, withdrawal of product approval, environmental or safety incidents and other liabilities. If the safety of any quantities supplied is compromised due to our manufacturers’ failure to adhere to applicable laws or for other reasons, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates.
The transition of our manufacturing operations to our new facility may result in further delays or expenses, and we may not experience the anticipated operating efficiencies.
Our approximately 63,000 square foot manufacturing facility in Framingham, Massachusetts is now fully operational. This facility is intended to give us control over key aspects of the supply chain for our products and product candidates. However, we may not experience the anticipated operating efficiencies as we commence manufacturing operations at the new facility. Any such delays may disrupt or delay the supply of our product candidates if we have not maintained a sufficient backup supply of our product candidates through third-party manufacturers. Moreover, changing manufacturing facilities may also require that we conduct additional studies, make notifications to the regulatory authorities, make additional filings to the regulatory authorities, and obtain regulatory authority approval for the new facilities, which may be delayed or which we may never receive. We will further need to comply with the FDA’s and applicable foreign regulatory authorities’ cGMP requirements for the production of our product candidates for clinical trials and, if approved, commercial supply, and will be subject to FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authority inspections. We may not be able to develop or acquire the internal expertise and resources necessary for compliance with these requirements. If we fail to achieve the operating efficiencies that we anticipate, our manufacturing and operating costs may be greater than expected, which could have a material adverse impact on our operating results.
In operating our own manufacturing facility, we may be forced to devote greater resources and management time than anticipated, particularly in areas relating to operations, quality, raw material supply, regulatory, facilities and information technology. If we experience unanticipated employee turnover in any of these areas, we may not be able to effectively manage our ongoing manufacturing operations and we may not achieve the operating efficiencies that we anticipate from the new facility, which may negatively affect our product development timeline. If we experience any unanticipated shortages of key raw materials, or other difficulties related to our raw material supply, we may not be able to effectively manage our ongoing manufacturing timelines which may negatively affect our product development schedule and our ability to provide clinical trial supplies to patients in our clinical trials.
Any problems or delays we experience in preparing for commercial scale manufacturing of a product candidate or component may result in a delay in product development timelines and FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority approval of the product candidate or may impair our ability to manufacture commercial quantities or such quantities at an acceptable cost and quality, which could result in the delay, prevention, or impairment of clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates and may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Any such problems could result in the delay, prevention, or impairment of clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates and may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
 
51

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Risks related to legal and compliance matters
We face potential product liability exposure, and if successful claims are brought against us, we may incur substantial liability and have to limit the commercialization of any approved products and/or our product candidates.
The use of our product candidates in clinical trials, and the sale of any product for which we obtain regulatory approval, exposes us to the risk of product liability claims. We face inherent risk of product liability related to the testing of our product candidates in human clinical trials, including liability relating to the actions and negligence of our investigators, and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any product candidates that we may develop. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. Product liability claims might be brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers or others using, administering or selling our products. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against these claims, we will incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

loss of revenue from decreased demand for our products and/or product candidates;

impairment of our business reputation or financial stability;

costs of related litigation;

substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants;

diversion of management attention;

withdrawal of clinical trial participants and potential termination of clinical trial sites or entire clinical programs;

the inability to commercialize our product candidates;

significant negative media attention;

decreases in our stock price;

initiation of investigations and enforcement actions by regulators; and

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions, including withdrawal of marketing approval.
We believe we have sufficient insurance coverage in place for our business operations. However, our insurance coverage may not reimburse us or may not be sufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive and, in the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. We intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain FDA or comparable foreign regulatory approval for our product candidates in development, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products approved for marketing, or at all. Failure to obtain and retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to fall and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash, and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other anticorruption laws, as well as import and export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Our operations are subject to anticorruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or the Bribery Act, and other anticorruption laws that apply in countries
 
52

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
where we do business. We also may participate in collaborations and relationships with third parties whose actions, if noncompliant, could potentially subject us to liability under the FCPA, Bribery Act or local anticorruption laws.
We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom and authorities in the European Union, including applicable import and export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, anti-money laundering laws, customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the trade control laws.
We can provide no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anticorruption laws or other legal requirements, including trade control laws. If we are not in compliance with applicable anticorruption laws or trade control laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects. Likewise, any investigation of any potential violations of these anticorruption laws or trade control laws by U.S., U.K. or other authorities could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
If we fail to comply with federal and state healthcare laws, including fraud and abuse and health and other information privacy and security laws, we could face substantial penalties and our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects will be materially harmed.
We are subject to many federal and state healthcare laws, such as the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal civil and criminal False Claims Acts, the civil monetary penalties statute, the Medicaid Drug Rebate statute and other price reporting requirements, the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, or VHCA, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economics and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH), or HIPAA, the FCPA, the ACA, and similar state laws. Even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, certain federal and state healthcare laws, and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse, reimbursement programs, government procurement, and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. We would be subject to healthcare fraud and abuse and patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. In the European Union, the data privacy laws are generally stricter than those that apply in the United States and include specific requirements for the collection of personal data of European Union persons or the transfer of personal data outside of the European Union to the United States to ensure that European Union standards of data privacy will be applied to such data.
If we or our operations are found to be in violation of any federal or state healthcare law, or any other laws or regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, suspension and debarment from government contracts, and refusal of orders under existing government contracts, exclusion from participation in U.S. federal or state health care programs, corporate integrity agreements, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could materially adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, it may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including but not limited to, exclusions from participation in government healthcare programs, which could also materially affect our business. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business.
We are subject to new legislation, regulatory proposals and healthcare payor initiatives that may increase our costs of compliance, and adversely affect our ability to market our products, obtain collaborators, and raise capital.
In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post approval activities and affect our
 
53

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ability to profitably sell any products for which we obtain marketing approval. We expect that current laws, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we may receive for any approved products, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our products, if approved, and, accordingly, on our results of operations.
Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government healthcare programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from commercializing our products and being able to generate revenue, and we could be prevented from or significantly delayed in achieving profitability.
Compliance with the federal track and trace requirements may increase our operational expenses and impose significant administrative burdens. As a result of these and other new proposals, we may determine to change our current manner of operation, provide additional benefits or change our contract arrangements, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, principal investigators, CMOs, or CROs may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, principal investigators, CMOs, or CROs could include intentional, reckless, negligent, or unintentional failures to comply with FDA regulations, comply with applicable fraud and abuse laws, provide accurate information to the FDA, properly calculate pricing information required by federal programs, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. This misconduct could also involve the improper use or misrepresentation of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. Moreover, it is possible for a whistleblower to pursue a False Claims Act case against us even if the government considers the claim unmeritorious and declines to intervene, which could require us to incur costs defending against such a claim. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.
Violations of or liabilities under environmental, health and safety laws and regulations could subject us to fines, penalties or other costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures, the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes and the cleanup of contaminated sites. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological and radioactive materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We would incur substantial costs as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental requirements in connection with our operations or property, including fines, penalties and other sanctions, investigation and cleanup costs and third party claims. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.
Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover costs and expenses, we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of biological or hazardous materials.
Our internal computer systems, or those of our third-party CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our development programs.
Our internal computer systems, and those of our CROs, CMOs, information technology suppliers and other contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, cyber-attacks and other
 
54

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication and electrical failures. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of personal, confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development of any of our product candidates could be delayed.
Risks related to our operations
Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by the coronavirus disease-2019, or COVID-19, outbreak.
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, now referred to as COVID-19, surfaced in Wuhan, China. The virus continues to spread globally, including the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries in which we conduct clinical trials, and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The impact of this pandemic has been and will likely continue to be extensive in many aspects of society, which has resulted in and will likely continue to result in significant disruptions to the global economy, as well as businesses and capital markets around the world. In an effort to halt the outbreak of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom and certain other countries in which we conduct clinical trials, placed significant restrictions on travel and business operations or issued shelter-in-place orders. These restrictions and orders continue to remain in effect to varying degrees, the effect of which required, and in some instances, continue to require, certain of our employees and clinical trial staff to work remotely and avoid unnecessary travel. The effect of these restrictions and orders has impacted the pace of enrollment in our clinical trials, and if they continue, may affect our results and operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the United States and global economies and has affected and may continue to affect our operations and those of third parties on which we rely, including by causing disruptions in our raw material and anti-PD-1 supply, the manufacturing of our product candidates, the access to laboratory and other supplies necessary for development and packaging of our product candidates, our commercialization processes and the conduct and the enrollment of current and future clinical trials. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected and may continue to affect the operations of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, which could result in delays of reviews and approvals, including with respect to RP1 and our other product candidates. The evolving COVID-19 pandemic has also directly or indirectly impacted and is likely to continue to impact the pace of enrollment in our clinical trials as patients may avoid or may not be able to travel to healthcare facilities and physicians’ offices unless due to a health emergency, and clinical trial staff may no longer be able to get to the clinic. Such facilities and offices have and may continue to be required to focus limited resources on non-clinical trial matters, including treatment of COVID-19 patients, and may not be available, in whole or in part, for clinical trial services. For example, our clinical trial of RP1 in solid organ transplant patients with CSCC, representing a highly immunocompromised patient populations, has been and continues to be slower than expected as a result, in part, of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, employee disruptions and remote working environments related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the federal, state and local responses to such virus, could materially impact the efficiency and pace with which we work and develop our product candidates.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the government and public health response continues to rapidly evolve and fluctuation in infection rates in the regions in which we operate has resulted in periodic changes in restrictions that vary from region to region and require vigilant attention and rapid response to new or reinstated orders. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA has issued a number of new guidance documents. Specifically, as a result of the potential effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on many clinical trial programs in the United States and globally, the FDA issued guidance concerning potential impacts on clinical trial programs, changes that may be necessary to such programs if they proceed, considerations regarding trial suspensions and discontinuations, the potential need to consult with or make submissions to relevant ethics committees, IRBs, and the FDA, the use of alternative drug delivery methods, and considerations with respect the outbreak’s impacts on endpoints, data collection, study procedures, and
 
55

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
analysis. Additionally, in March 2020, the U.S. Congress passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, which includes a number of provisions that are applicable to the pharmaceutical industry, and further acts, laws or regulations may be enacted or implemented in the future.
While the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration and severity of, the COVID-19 pandemic are difficult to assess or predict, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global financial markets may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our short-term and long-term liquidity. Additionally, the stock market has been unusually volatile during the COVID-19 pandemic and such volatility may continue. To date, during certain periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, our stock price fluctuated significantly, and such fluctuation may continue to occur. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions, the ultimate impact on financial markets and the global economy, and the effectiveness of any COVID-19 vaccines and actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease. While vaccines for COVID-19 are being, and have been developed, there is no guarantee that any such vaccine will be effective, work as expected or be made available or will be accepted on a significant scale and in a timely manner.
We do not yet know the full extent of the delays or impacts on our business, financing or clinical trial activities, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our liquidity, capital resources, operations and business and those of the third parties on which we rely. To the extent to COVID-19 pandemic materially impacts our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of significantly heightening many of the other risk described in this “Risk Factors” section.
We will need to expand the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth, which could disrupt our operations.
As our development and commercialization plans and strategies develop, we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other personnel. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize RP1 and our other product candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, which would impose significant additional responsibilities on members of management and may divert their attention away from day-to-day activities.
We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services. The services include substantially all aspects of clinical trial management and manufacturing, as well as support for our financial reporting and accounting functions. If the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants become unavailable to us or we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities, or if the quality or accuracy of such services is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, we may not comply with our financial reporting and accounting obligations on a timely basis and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of RP1 and our other product candidates or otherwise advance our business.
If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring qualified new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize RP1 and our other product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.
We are highly dependent on our key personnel, including Philip Astley-Sparke, our Chief Executive Officer; Robert Coffin, Ph.D., our President and Chief Research & Development Officer; and Colin Love, Ph.D., our Chief Operating Officer. If we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our ability to compete in the highly competitive biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries depends upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management and particularly on the services of our founders, as well as our other scientific, manufacturing, quality and medical personnel, including Philip Astley-Sparke, our Chief
 
56

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Executive Officer, Robert Coffin, Ph.D., our President and Chief Research & Development Officer, and Colin Love, Ph.D., our Chief Operating Officer. The loss of the services of our key personnel and any of our other executive officers, key employees, and scientific and medical advisors, and our inability to find suitable replacements, could result in delays in product development and harm our business.
Additionally, competition for skilled personnel is intense and the turnover rate can be high, which may limit our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel on acceptable terms or at all.
To induce valuable employees to remain at our company, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we have provided stock option and restricted stock unit grants that vest over time. The value to employees of these equity grants that vest over time may be significantly affected by movements in our stock price that are beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies. Although we have employment agreements with our key employees, these employment agreements generally provide for at-will employment, which means that any of our employees could leave our employment at any time, with or without notice.
If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired.
We are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting. We must perform system and process design evaluation and testing of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We continue to be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to incur substantial professional fees and internal costs for our accounting and finance functions, expend significant management efforts, continue to implement plans developed to address areas that we have identified as requiring improvement, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting.
If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, our investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities.
We believe that any internal controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. We may discover weaknesses in our system of internal financial and accounting controls and procedures that could result in a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements. Our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
We previously had identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which have now been remediated. Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in material misstatements in our financial statements and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which in turn could cause the trading price of our securities to decline.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. As disclosed in our
 
57

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020, management identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of that fiscal year.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable and accurate financial statements and to effectively prevent fraud. We devote significant resources and time to comply with the internal control over financial reporting requirements of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, and we continue to enhance our controls and processes. In the year ended March 31, 2021, we remediated the previously disclosed material weakness in our internal controls over our ability to maintain an effective control environment commensurate with our financial reporting requirements. The Company hired additional resources in the finance department with the accounting knowledge and skills necessary to appropriately analyze, record and disclose accounting matters timely and accurately. The additional resources have allowed for more appropriate structure of responsibilities within the finance department and sufficient segregation of duties. Furthermore, we remediated the material weakness over the accounting for, and disclosure of, complex transactions, including accounting for preferred stock, stock-based compensation, warrant liabilities and leases. Although these material weaknesses are remediated as of March 31, 2021, we cannot be certain that we will be able to prevent future significant deficiencies or material weaknesses. Inadequate internal controls could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on investor confidence in our financial statements, the trading price of our stock and our access to capital.
Risks related to our common stock and general risks
An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.
Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 20, 2018. Given the limited trading history of our common stock, there is a risk that an active trading market for shares of our common stock may not be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for shares of our common stock, our stockholders may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price at which such stockholder acquired our common stock or at the time that they would like to sell.
The price of our common stock may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock.
Our stock price has been and is likely to be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the price at which it was acquired. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

the success of competitive products or technologies;

results of clinical trials of RP1 and our other product candidates or those of our competitors;

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

the level of expenses related to the development of RP1 and our other product candidates or clinical development programs;

the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or drugs;

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
 
58

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

general economic, industry and market conditions;

political and economic instability, including the impact of COVID-19, the possibility of an economic recession, international hostilities, acts of terrorism and governmental restrictions, inflation, trade relationships and military and political alliances; and

the other factors described in this “Risk factors” section.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly in the future, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. From time to time, we may enter into license or collaboration agreements with other companies that include development funding and significant upfront and milestone payments and/or royalties, which may become an important source of our revenue. Accordingly, our revenue may depend on development funding and the achievement of development and clinical milestones under current and any potential future license and collaboration agreements and sales of our products, if approved. These upfront and milestone payments may vary significantly from period to period and any such variance could cause a significant fluctuation in our operating results from one period to the next.
In addition, we measure compensation cost for stock-based awards made to employees at the grant date of the award, based on the fair value of the award as determined by our board of directors, and recognize the cost as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period. As the variables that we use as a basis for valuing these awards change over time, including, our underlying stock price and stock price volatility, the magnitude of the expense that we must recognize may vary significantly.
Furthermore, our operating results may fluctuate due to a variety of other factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including the following:

timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research and development activities relating to our current and any future product candidates, which will change from time to time;

the total expenses we incur in connection with equipping and operating our manufacturing facility;

our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials and the timing of enrollment;

the cost of manufacturing our current and any future product candidates, which may vary depending on the FDA’s and comparable foreign regulatory authorities’ guidelines and requirements, the quantity of production and the terms of any agreements with manufacturers;

expenditures that we will or may incur to acquire or develop additional product candidates and technologies;

the timing and outcomes of clinical and preclinical studies for RP1 and our other product candidates or competing product candidates;

competition from existing and potential future products that compete with RP1 and our other product candidates, and changes in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or partners;

any delays in regulatory review or approval of RP1 or our other product candidates;

the level of demand for RP1 and our other product candidates, if approved, which may fluctuate significantly and be difficult to predict;

the risk/benefit profile, cost and reimbursement policies with respect to our product candidates, if approved, and existing and potential future products that compete with RP1 and our other product candidates;

our ability to commercialize RP1 and our other product candidates, if approved, inside and outside of the United States, either independently or working with third parties;
 
59

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

the success of and our ability to establish and maintain collaborations, licensing or other arrangements;

our ability to adequately support future growth;

potential unforeseen business disruptions that increase our costs or expenses;

political and economic instability, including the impact of COVID-19, the possibility of an economic recession, international hostilities, acts of terrorism and governmental restrictions, inflation, trade relationships and military and political alliances;

future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies; and

the changing and volatile global economic environment.
These factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.
This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated revenue and/or earnings guidance we may provide.
We have broad discretion in how we use our cash, cash equivalents and investments, and may not use these resources effectively, which could affect our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.
Our management has considerable discretion in the application of our cash, cash equivalents and investments. We intend to use our resources to fund our preclinical and clinical development programs as well as for general corporate purposes, including working capital requirements and other operating expenses. As a result, investors will be relying upon management’s judgment with only limited information about our specific intentions for the use of our resources. We may use our resources for purposes that do not yield a significant return or any return at all for our stockholders. In addition, pending their use, we may invest our cash, cash equivalents and investments in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.
We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment.
Our executive officers, directors, and stockholders and their affiliates who beneficially own more than 5% of our common stock exercise significant influence over our company, which limits your ability to influence corporate matters and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.
Based on the number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021, our executive officers, directors, holders of 5% or more of our capital stock and their respective affiliates beneficially owned a significant portion of our voting stock and, accordingly, these stockholders will continue to have significant influence over matters requiring stockholder approval. For example, these stockholders will continue to significantly influence elections of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, or approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transaction. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.
Conflicts of interest may arise because some members of our board of directors are representatives of our principal stockholders.
Certain of our principal stockholders or their affiliates are venture capital funds or other investment vehicles that could invest in entities that directly or indirectly compete with us. As a result of these
 
60

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
relationships, when conflicts arise between the interests of the principal stockholders or their affiliates and the interests of other stockholders, members of our board of directors that are representatives of the principal stockholders may not be disinterested. Neither the principal stockholders nor the representatives of the principal stockholders on our board of directors, by the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, are required to offer us any transaction opportunity of which they become aware and could take any such opportunity for themselves or offer it to their other affiliates, unless such opportunity is expressly offered to them solely in their capacity as members of our board of directors.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
If our existing stockholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market after the expiration of contractual or legal restrictions on resale lapse, the market price of our common stock could decline. These sales may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate, or to use equity as consideration for future acquisition.
In addition, a significant number of shares of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options and restricted stock units, reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans or subject to outstanding warrants are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act, including our ESPP if activated. If these additional shares of common stock are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.
Certain holders of shares of our common stock, or their permitted transferees, are entitled to rights with respect to the registration under the Securities Act of shares of our common stock pursuant to the amended and restated investors’ rights agreement by and among us and certain of our stockholders. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares purchased by affiliates. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We may sell up to $62.5 million of shares of our common stock in “at-the-market” offerings pursuant to the sales agreement entered into with SVB Leerink LLC on August 11, 2020 and as amended on October 21, 2020. The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement, or anticipation of such sales, could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline or make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise desire. In addition, issuances of any shares of our common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will have a dilutive effect on our existing stockholders.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock or securities convertible, exercisable or exchangeable into common stock, our existing stockholders’ interest will be diluted. Debt financing, if available, would increase our fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.
If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to grant rights to develop and market one or more of our product candidates or technologies that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
If we engage in future acquisitions or strategic partnerships, this may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.
We may evaluate various acquisitions and strategic partnerships, including licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies, or businesses. Any potential acquisition or strategic partnership may entail numerous risks, including:
 
61

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

increased operating expenses and cash requirements;

the assumption of additional indebtedness or contingent liabilities;

the issuance of our equity securities;

assimilation of operations, intellectual property and products of an acquired company, including difficulties associated with integrating new personnel;

the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing product programs and initiatives in pursuing such a strategic merger or acquisition;

retention of key employees, the loss of key personnel, and uncertainties in our ability to maintain key business relationships;

risks and uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party, their regulatory compliance status, and their existing products or product candidates and marketing approvals; and

our inability to generate revenue from acquired technology and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives in undertaking the acquisition or even to offset the associated acquisition and maintenance costs.
In addition, if we undertake acquisitions, we may issue dilutive securities, assume or incur debt obligations, incur large one-time expenses and acquire intangible assets that could result in significant future amortization expense or intangible asset impairment charges. Moreover, we may not be able to locate suitable acquisition opportunities and this inability could impair our ability to grow or obtain access to technology or products that may be important to the development of our business. Any of the foregoing may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Unfavorable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and prospects.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. The most recent global financial crisis caused extreme volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. A severe or prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of risks to our business, including a reduced ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. A weak or declining economy could also strain our suppliers, possibly resulting in supply disruption. Any of the foregoing could harm our business and we cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact our business.
Global financial markets have been experiencing extreme disruption in recent months, including, among other things, extreme volatility in securities prices. We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of the current disruptions in financial markets and adverse economic conditions throughout the world. These economic developments affect businesses such as ours and those of third parties on which we rely in a number of ways that could result in unfavorable consequences to us. Current economic conditions or a deepening economic downturn in the United States and elsewhere may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our short-term and long-term liquidity.
Although we are not aware of any downgrades, material losses, or other significant deterioration in the fair value of our cash equivalents or short-term investments, we cannot assure you that deterioration of the global credit and financial markets would not negatively impact our current portfolio of cash equivalents or short-term investments, or our ability to meet our financing objectives. Furthermore, our stock price may decline due, in part, to the volatility of the stock market and general economic downturns.
Exchange rate fluctuations may materially affect our results of operations and financial conditions.
Owing to the international scope of our operations, fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly between the U.S. dollar and the British pound and the euro, may adversely affect us. Although we are based in the United States, we have significant research and development operations in the United Kingdom, and source third-party manufacturing, consulting and other services in the United Kingdom and the European
 
62

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Union. As a result, our business and the price of our common stock may be affected by fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, which may have a significant impact on our results of operations and cash flows from period to period. Currently, we do not have any exchange rate hedging arrangements in place.
Item 1B.
Unresolved staff comments
None.
Item 2.
Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Woburn, Massachusetts, where we occupy approximately 18,712 square feet pursuant to a lease expiring in 2029, with an option to extend by an additional five years. We also lease an approximately 12,000 square-foot facility in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, containing research and development, laboratory and office space. This lease expires in April 2031 and we have the right to terminate it in April 2026.
In June 2018, we entered into an agreement to lease approximately 63,000 square feet of office, manufacturing and laboratory space in Framingham, Massachusetts. Pursuant to the lease agreement, the lease term commenced in December 2018 and the rent commenced in August 2019. The initial lease term is ten years from the rent commencement date and includes two optional five-year extensions.
We believe that our current facilities are suitable and adequate to meet our current and planned needs. Our leases can be renewed, and we believe that suitable alternative spaces will be available as needed in the future, on commercially reasonable terms. We do not own any real property.
Item 3.
Legal proceedings
We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.
Item 4.
Mine safety disclosures
Not applicable.
 
63

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART II
Item 5.
Market for registrant’s common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “REPL” since July 20, 2018. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
Holders of common stock
As of the close of business on May 17, 2021, there were approximately 12 holders of record of our common stock. This number does not reflect beneficial owners whose shares are held in street name.
Dividend policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans
Information regarding our equity compensation plans and the securities authorized for issuance thereunder is set forth herein under Part III, Item 12 below.
Recent sales of unregistered securities
None.
Use of proceeds from registered securities
Shares of our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select market on July 20, 2018. The offer and sale of all the shares in the initial public offering, or IPO, were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-225846), which was declared effective by the SEC on July 19, 2018. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in the Prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act on July 23, 2018.
Purchases of equity securities by the Issuer and affiliated purchasers
None.
Item 6.
Selected financial data
Not applicable
Item 7.
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical information, some of the statements contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. The following information and any forward-looking statements should be considered in light of factors discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report
 
64

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
on Form 10-K, particularly including those risks identified in Part I, Item 1A “Risk factors” and our other filings with the Securities Exchange Commission, or SEC.
We caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Statements made herein are as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC and should not be relied upon as of any subsequent date. Even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the SEC, to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements may be based or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.
Overview
General
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company committed to applying our leading expertise in the field of oncolytic immunotherapy to transform the lives of cancer patients. We use our proprietary Immulytic platform to design and develop product candidates that are intended to maximally activate the immune system against cancer.
Oncolytic immunotherapy is an emerging drug class, which we intend to establish as the second cornerstone of immune-based cancer treatments, alongside checkpoint blockade. Oncolytic immunotherapy exploits the ability of certain viruses to selectively replicate in and directly kill tumors, as well as induce a potent, patient-specific, anti-tumor immune response. Our product candidates incorporate multiple mechanisms of action into a practical “off-the-shelf” approach that is intended to maximize the immune response against a patient’s cancer and to offer significant advantages over personalized vaccine approaches. We believe that the bundling of multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer into single therapies will simplify the development path of our product candidates, while also improving patient outcomes at a lower cost to the healthcare system than the use of multiple different drugs.
The foundation of our Immulytic platform consists of a proprietary, engineered strain of herpes simplex virus 1, or HSV-1, that has been “armed” with a fusogenic glycoprotein intended to substantially increase anti-tumor activity. Our Immulytic platform enables us to incorporate various genes into HSV-1 that are intended to further augment the inherent properties of HSV-1 in order to both directly destroy tumor cells and induce an anti-tumor immune response. We currently have three product candidates in our development pipeline, RP1, our lead product candidate, RP2 and RP3.
We are conducting a number of clinical trials of RP1, both as a monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, with a focus on immune-responsive tumors. We are actively enrolling patients in the CERPASS trial, a randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial of RP1 with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, or CSCC, RP1’s lead indication in agreement with our partner Regeneron. CERPASS is a registration-directed clinical trial evaluating RP1 in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron, versus cemiplimab alone. CERPASS is currently being amended, in agreement with Regeneron, to include two independent primary endpoints, complete response (CR) rate and overall response rate (ORR), rather than only ORR, and to reduce the sample size from 240 to 180 patients. Regeneron has granted to us a non-exclusive royalty-free license to cemiplimab for use in this trial, is funding one-half of the clinical trial costs, and is supplying cemiplimab at no cost. If this clinical trial generates compelling clinical data demonstrating the benefits of the combined treatment, we believe the data could support a filing with regulatory authorities seeking marketing approval. We expect the primary data read-out from this Phase 2 clinical trial in 2022.
We continue our collaboration with BMS under which it has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and is supplying at no cost, its anti-PD-1 therapy, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP1 in our multi-cohort Phase 1/2 IGNYTE clinical trial. This trial includes a registration directed Phase 2
 
65

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
expansion cohort enrolling 125 patients with anti-PD-1 failed cutaneous melanoma who are being treated with RP1 in combination with nivolumab. We initiated this cohort after completing enrollment in a prior Phase 2 cohort in the same clinical trial of approximately 30 patients with melanoma, which demonstrated the safety and clinical activity of the combination of RP1 and nivolumab in patients with melanoma who failed prior anti-PD-1 when given alone or in combination with CTLA-4 blockade. In March 2021 we held a Type B meeting with the FDA to discuss the design of this cohort in the IGNYTE trial. In this meeting, the FDA expressed that while a randomized controlled clinical trial would always be preferred for registration purpose, that in this patient population with no clear standard of care, if the clinical data is sufficiently compelling then the data could be considered for submission by the FDA under the accelerated approval pathway. The FDA also indicated that a randomized confirmatory trial would also be needed as is required under the accelerated approval pathway. The design of the confirmatory trial is intended to be discussed with the FDA prior to a BLA submission. In connection with a presentation at SITC in October 2020 we announced updated clinical data from our multi-cohort Phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating RP1 in combination with nivolumab in patients with melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. As reported, RP1 in combination with nivolumab has continued to be well tolerated, and we believe demonstrates continued promising anti-tumor activity in patients with skin cancers, including in patients with anti-PD-1 failed melanoma, and in patients with CSCC. We expect that the primary data read-out from the registration directed Phase 2 melanoma cohort will be in 2022.
We continue to enroll patients in other IGNYTE Phase 2 cohorts under our collaboration with BMS in which we are evaluating RP1 in combination with nivolumab. Currently, enrollment is ongoing in a 45 patient cohort with non-melanoma skin cancer (including the recent addition of 15 patients who have failed prior anti-PD-1 therapy), a 15 patient cohort with MSI-H/dMMR tumors and a 30 patient cohort with anti-PD(L)-1 failed NSCLC. We recently began dosing a patient in the NSCLC cohort. Due in part to COVID-19 related disruptions, we now expect the original 30 patient non-melanoma skin cancer cohort to be fully accrued by mid-2021. We continue to accumulate data in the MSI-H/dMMR cohort and expect to decide whether to pursue MSI-H/dMMR tumors into registration-directed development by the end of 2021.
We have also opened for enrollment a Phase 1b clinical trial of single agent RP1 in solid organ transplant recipients with CSCC, or ARTACUS or the ARTACUS trial, which we believe to be potentially registrational (in its own right or, subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, following enrollment of additional patients, including as a potential label expansion after an initial approval of RP1 in a different indication). We are currently enrolling patients in this clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant recipients with recurrent CSCC and are currently targeting about 30 patients for this trial. Enrollment in this clinical trial has been impacted by COVID-19, as the patient population is severely immune-compromised and considered very high risk. Nevertheless, we have begun dosing patients and expect to present initial data from this clinical trial in the second half of the year.
We are also developing additional product candidates, RP2 and RP3, that have been further engineered to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and are intended to address additional tumor types, including traditionally less immune responsive tumor types. In addition to the expression of GALV-GP R(-) and human GM-CSF as in RP1, RP2 has been engineered to express an antibody-like molecule intended to block the activity of CTLA-4, a protein that inhibits the full activation of an immune response, including to tumors. RP3, which does not include the expression of GM-CSF, has been engineered with the intent to further stimulate an anti-tumor immune response through activation of immune co-stimulatory pathways through expression of the ligands for CD40 and 4-1BBL, in addition to anti-CTLA-4 and GALV-GP R(-).
We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 alone and in combination with nivolumab in the second half of 2019. This clinical trial is also being conducted as part of our collaboration with BMS, under which BMS has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to, and will supply at no cost, nivolumab, for use in combination with RP2. In November 2020, we and BMS agreed to increase the number of patients in the combination part of the clinical trial from 12 to 30 patients. In October 2020, we presented positive data from the single agent RP2 portion of the clinical trial that showed deep and durable responses, including demonstration of tumor response in uninjected lesions and in patients with difficult to treat advanced cancers. This data supports the hypothesis that anti-CTLA-4 delivered intra-tumorally through oncolytic virus replication, with accompanying antigen release and presentation, can provide potent anti-tumor effects.
 
66

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Following the monotherapy phase of this clinical trial with RP2, enrollment in the expansion phase using RP2 in combination with nivolumab is currently underway and we expect to present initial data in mid-2021.
We have obtained clearance from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom to begin clinical development with RP3 and in December 2020 we initiated dosing in this clinical trial. This Phase 1 clinical trial is designed to evaluate RP3 alone and combined with anti-PD-1 therapy in advanced solid tumor patients. Initial data from this clinical trial is expected to be presented in the second half of 2021.
RP1, RP2 and RP3 are administered by direct injection into solid tumors, guided either visually or by ultrasound, computerized tomography, or CT, or other imaging methods. We believe that direct injection maximizes virus-mediated tumor cell death, provides the most efficient delivery of virus-encoded immune activating proteins into the tumor with the goal of activating systemic immunity, and limits the systemic toxicities that could be associated with intravenous administration. Activation of systemic immunity through local administration is intended to lead to the induction of anti-tumor immune responses leading to clinical response of tumors that have not themselves been injected.
Financial
Since our inception, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to developing our Immulytic platform building our intellectual property portfolio, conducting research and development of our product candidates, business planning, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for our operations. To date, we have financed our operations primarily with proceeds from the sale of equity securities and to a lesser extent the proceeds from the issuance of debt securities. We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales.
Since our initial public offering, or IPO, on July 24, 2018, we have raised an aggregate of approximately $569.0 million in net proceeds to fund our operations, of which $101.2 million was from our IPO, $463.4 million was from three separate follow-on offerings, or the Public Offerings, that we closed in November 2019, June 2020 and October 2020, respectively, and $4.4 million was from at-the-market offerings. We sold 7,407,936 shares of common stock in our IPO, an aggregate of 13,619,822 shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants to purchase 5,284,238 shares of our common stock in the Public Offerings, and 287,559 shares of common stock through our at-the-market facility.
Funds affiliated with two separate institutional investors hold all of our outstanding pre-funded warrants. Other than as set forth in Note 8 of our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the shares of our common stock into which our outstanding pre-funded warrants are exercisable are not included in the number of issued and outstanding shares of our common stock set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In addition, on August 8, 2019, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc., or Hercules, which we refer to as the Hercules Loan Agreement, pursuant to which we borrowed $10.0 million under a secured term loan facility in the amount of $30.0 million. The Hercules Loan Agreement was subsequently amended on June 1, 2020, in order to, among other things, increase the secured term loan facility from $30.0 million to $40.0 million. On December 15, 2020, we paid a total of $10.8 million, representing the outstanding principal, accrued and unpaid interest, fees, costs and expenses due and owing under the Hercules Loan Agreement and related loan documents, in repayment of all of our outstanding obligations thereunder, and thereby terminated the Hercules Loan Agreement and the related loan documents.
Since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. Our net losses were $80.9 million and $52.6 million for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $193.2 million. These losses have resulted primarily from costs incurred in connection with research and development activities and general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for at least the next several years.
 
67

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
We anticipate that our expenses and capital requirements will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance the preclinical activities and clinical trials of our product candidates, and if and as we:

conduct our current and future clinical trials with RP1, RP2 and RP3;

further preclinical development of our platform;

operate our own in-house manufacturing facility;

seek to identify and develop additional product candidates;

seek marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any;

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;

until our manufacturing facility is fully validated, continued limited manufacturing by third parties for clinical development;

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

hire and retain additional clinical, quality control, scientific and general and administration personnel;

acquire or in-license other drugs and technologies; and

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our research and development programs, any future commercialization efforts and operations as a public company.
We will not generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval for RP1 or our other product candidates. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates and do not enter into a commercialization partnership in any jurisdiction, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our internal commercialization capability to support product sales, marketing, and distribution.
As a result, we will need additional funding to support our continuing operations and pursue our growth strategy. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, lines of credit, collaborations, strategic alliances, and marketing, distribution, or licensing arrangements. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such agreements as, and when, needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back, or discontinue the development and commercialization of one or more of our product candidates.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we are able to generate product sales, we may not become profitable. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce or terminate our operations.
As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $476.3 million. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least 12 months from the issuance of the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
See “— Liquidity and capital resources” and “Risk factors — Risks related to our financial position and need for additional capital.”
The COVID-19 pandemic
We are continuing to monitor the global outbreak and spread of COVID-19 and have taken steps to identify and mitigate the adverse impacts on, and risks to, our business posed by its spread and actions
 
68

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
taken by governmental and health authorities to address the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, we have implemented a global work from home policy for certain employees who are able to perform their duties remotely. For those employees working from our facilities, including certain essential employees in our laboratory and who perform manufacturing functions, and certain other employees we deem essential from time to time, we have implemented stringent safety measures designed to comply with applicable federal, state and local guidelines instituted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the United States and global economies and has affected and may continue to affect our operations and those of third parties on which we rely, including by causing disruptions in our raw material and anti-PD-1 supply, the manufacturing of our product candidates and our commercialization processes. In addition, timing of patient enrollment and treatment in certain of our ongoing clinical studies has been impacted by the pandemic. For example, the enrollment of our clinical trial of RP1 in liver and kidney transplant patients with CSCC, representing highly immunocompromised patient populations, has been slower than expected for reasons we attribute to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the extent of these delays is currently unknown and has and will likely continue to vary by clinical study. In addition, we may incur unforeseen costs as a result of disruptions in clinical supply or preclinical study or clinical trial delays. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19, the actions taken in an effort to contain it or to potentially treat or continue to vaccinate against COVID-19 and the economic impact on local, regional, national and international markets. We continue to actively monitor this situation and the possible effects on our financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry and workforce. For additional information, see “Risk Factors — Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by the coronavirus disease-2019, or COVID-19, outbreak.” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Components of our results of operations
Revenue
To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales as we do not have any approved products and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products in the near future. If our development efforts for RP1 or any other product candidates that we may develop in the future are successful and result in regulatory approval, or if we enter into collaboration or license agreements with third parties, we may generate revenue in the future from a combination of product sales or payments from those collaborations or license agreements.
Operating expenses
Our expenses since inception have consisted solely of research and development costs and general and administrative costs.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts and the development of our product candidates, and include:

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including clinical research organizations, or CROs, that conduct research, preclinical activities and clinical trials on our behalf as well as contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, that manufacture our product candidates for use in our preclinical and clinical trials;

salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;

costs of outside consultants, including their fees, stock-based compensation and related travel expenses;

the costs of laboratory supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;
 
69

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements in connection with the development of our product candidates; and

facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.
These costs will be partially offset by our agreement with Regeneron related to our CERPASS trial.
We expense research and development costs as incurred. We recognize external development costs based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information provided to us by our service providers. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in our consolidated financial statements as prepaid or accrued research and development expenses.
Our direct external research and development expenses are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist of costs, such as fees paid to consultants, contractors, CMOs, and CROs in connection with our preclinical and clinical development activities. We do not allocate personnel costs, costs associated with our discovery efforts, laboratory supplies, and facilities, including depreciation or other indirect costs, to specific product development programs because these costs are deployed across multiple product development programs and, as such, are not separately classified. All non-employee costs associated with our manufacturing facility have been fully burdened to our RP1 program.
The table below summarizes our research and development expenses by product candidate or development program for each of the periods presented:
Year Ended
March 31,
2021
2020
Direct research and development expenses by program:
RP1
$ 27,517 $ 14,474
RP2 & RP3
3,004
Unallocated research and development expenses:
Personnel related (including stock-based compensation)
22,939 14,646
Other
3,294 9,641
Total research and development expenses
$ 56,754 $ 38,761
Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue enrollment and initiate additional clinical trials and continue to discover and develop additional product candidates. The successful development and commercialization of our product candidates is highly uncertain. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development and commercialization, including the following:

the scope, rate of progress, expense and results of our ongoing clinical trials, as well as future clinical trials or other product candidates and other research and development activities that we may conduct;

the number and scope of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;

our ability to maintain our current research and development programs and to establish new ones;

uncertainties in clinical trial design;

the rate of enrollment in clinical trials;

the successful completion of clinical trials with safety, tolerability, and efficacy profiles that are satisfactory to the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority;
 
70

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

the receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

our success in operating our manufacturing facility, or securing manufacturing supply through relationships with third parties;

our ability to obtain and maintain patents, trade secret protection, and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally;

our ability to protect our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;

the commercialization of our product candidates, if and when approved;

the acceptance of our product candidates, if approved, by patients, the medical community, and third-party payors;

our ability to successfully develop our product candidates for use in combination with third-party products or product candidates;

negative developments in the field of immuno-oncology;

competition with other products; and

significant and changing government regulation and regulatory guidance.
A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the FDA or another regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development of a product candidate, or if we experience significant trial delays due to patient enrollment, the COVID-19 pandemic, or other reasons, we could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development. We may never succeed in obtaining regulatory approval for any of our product candidates.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate and business development and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include professional fees for legal, patent, accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services; travel expenses; and facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.
We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our general and administrative headcount to support our continued research and development and potential commercialization of our product candidates. We also expect to continue to incur increased expenses, including accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with exchange listing and SEC requirements; director and officer insurance costs; and investor and public relations costs.
Other income (expense), net
Research and development incentives
Research and development incentives consists of reimbursements of research and development expenditures from governmental authorities. We participate, through our subsidiary in the United Kingdom, in the research and development program provided by the United Kingdom tax relief program, such that a percentage of up to 14.5% of our qualifying research and development expenditures are reimbursed by the United Kingdom government, and such incentives are reflected as other income.
Investment income
Investment income consists of income earned on our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments.
 
71

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Interest expense on finance lease liability
Interest expense on finance lease liability consists of amortization of finance charges under our financing lease.
Interest expense on debt obligations
Interest expense on debt obligations consists of the amortization of debt discount and cash paid for interest under the term loan facility with Hercules.
Loss on extinguishment of debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt consists of the loss from extinguishment of debt obligations under the term loan facility with Hercules.
Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense), net consists primarily of realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction gains and losses.
Income taxes
Since our inception and through March 31, 2021, we have not recorded any income tax benefits for the net losses we incurred in each jurisdiction in which we operate, as we believe, based upon the weight of available evidence, that it is more likely than not that all of our net operating loss carryforwards will not be realized.
Results of operations
Comparison of the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year Ended March 31,
Change
2021
2020
(Amounts in thousands)
Operating expenses:
Research and development
$ 56,754 $ 38,761 $ 17,993
General and administrative
23,201 17,437 5,764
Total operating expenses
79,955 56,198 23,757
Loss from operations
(79,955) (56,198) (23,757)
Other income (expense):
Research and development incentives
2,807 3,084 (277)
Investment income
916 2,424 (1,508)
Interest expense on finance lease liability
(2,242) (1,185) (1,057)
Interest expense on debt obligations
(818) (734) (84)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(913) (913)
Other (expense) income
(665) (16) (649)
Total other (expense) income, net
(915) 3,573 (4,488)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
(80,870) (52,625) (28,245)
 
72

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Research and development expenses
Year Ended
March 31,
2021
2020
Change
Direct research and development expenses by program:
RP1
$ 27,517 $ 14,474 $ 13,043
RP2 & RP3
3,004 3,004
Unallocated research and development expenses:
Personnel related (including stock-based compensation)
22,939 14,646 8,293
Other
3,294 9,641 (6,347)
Total research and development expenses
$ 56,754 $ 38,761 $ 17,993
Research and development expenses for the year ended March 31, 2021 were $56.8 million, compared to $38.8 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The increase of $18.0 million was due primarily to an increase of $16.0 million in direct research costs related to our clinical trials for RP1, RP2 and RP3, as well as a net increase in unallocated research and development costs of $1.9 million. The increase in RP1 costs was due primarily to an increase in clinical trial costs in the year ended March 31, 2021 associated with the advancement of our ongoing clinical trials as well as costs associated with operations of our manufacturing facility allocated to RP1. The increase in costs associated with RP2 and RP3 are primarily associated with the continued clinical trial development of these product candidates.
In addition, the increase in unallocated research and development expenses is mainly attributable to an $8.3 million increase in personnel-related costs, including a $6.6 million increase in payroll and fringe benefits and a stock-based compensation increase of $2.1 million. The increase in personnel-related costs largely reflected the hiring of additional personnel in our research and development functions as we expanded the development plan of our product candidates in multiple indications. Personnel related costs for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 included stock-based compensation expense of $5.7 million and $3.7 million, respectively. Other costs decreased primarily due to our manufacturing operations focused on the potential registrational studies associated with our RP1 development plan with multiple cohorts.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses were $23.2 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, compared to $17.4 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The increase of $5.8 million primarily reflects an increase of approximately $3.7 million in personnel related costs, including an increase in stock-based compensation of $2.0 million, which is driven by the hiring of additional personnel in our general and administrative functions as we expanded our R&D operations in the United States. Additionally, the change is driven, in part, by an increase of approximately $1.3 million in facility and other variable costs due to an increase in costs associated with maintaining our directors and officers insurance policy.
Total other (expense) income, net
Other (expense) income for the year ended March 31, 2021 was $(0.9) million compared to $3.6 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The decrease of $4.5 million is primarily attributable to a $1.5 million decrease in investment income as a result of declining market conditions on a year-over-year basis, which have decreased the rate of return on investments, and a $1.1 million increase in expense related to interest on our financing lease liability.
Liquidity and capital resources
Since our inception, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and have incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from our operations. We have not yet commercialized any of our product candidates, which are in various phases of preclinical and clinical development, and we do not expect to generate revenue from sales of any products for the foreseeable future, if at all.
 
73

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Sources of liquidity
To date, we have financed our operations primarily with proceeds from the sale of equity securities and, to a lesser extent, proceeds from the issuance of debt securities. Through March 31, 2021, we had received net proceeds of $655.8 million from our sales of equity instruments and $10.0 million from our incurrence of debt under the term loan facility with Hercules, which was repaid in full in December 2020. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $476.3 million.
In July 2018, we completed our IPO and issued and sold 7,407,936 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $15.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds of $101.2 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses of approximately $9.9 million. In the fourth calendar quarter of 2019, we closed a registered public offering for the issuance and sale of 4,516,561 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $13.61 per share and pre-funded warrants to purchase 2,200,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $13.6099 per pre-funded warrant, which was equal to the public offering price per share of the common stock less the $0.0001 per share exercise price of each pre-funded warrant. We received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $85.6 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses of approximately $5.8 million. In June 2020, we closed a second registered public offering for the issuance and sale of 3,478,261 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $23.00 per share and pre-funded warrants to purchase 1,521,738 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $22.9999 per pre-funded warrant, which was equal to the public offering price per share of common stock less the $0.0001 per share exercise price of each pre-funded warrant. We received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $107.8 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses of approximately $7.2 million. In October  2020, we closed a third registered public offering for the issuance and sale of 5,625,000 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $40.00 per share and pre-funded warrants to purchase 1,562,500 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $39.9999 per pre-funded warrant, the public offering price per share of common stock less the $0.0001 per share exercise price of each pre-funded warrant. We received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $270.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses of approximately $17.5 million.
In addition to registered public equity offerings, we also established an at-the-market offering program pursuant to a sales agreement that we entered into with SVB Leerink LLC, or the Agent, on August 8, 2019, or the 2019 Sales Agreement. Under the 2019 Sales Agreement, and prior to its amendment in June 2020, we could sell from time to time, at our option, up to an aggregate of $75.0 million of shares of our common stock. In June 2020, we amended the 2019 Sales Agreement to reduce the aggregate offering amount thereunder from $75.0 million to $30.0 million. We sold 287,559 shares of our common stock under the 2019 Sales Agreement for net proceeds of approximately $4.4 million. On August 11, 2020, in connection with our entry into separate sales agreement with the Agent, or the 2020 Sales Agreement, we and the Agent mutually agreed to terminate the 2019 Sales Agreement. Under the 2020 Sales Agreement, and prior to its amendment in October 2020, we could sell from time to time, at our option, up to an aggregate of $75.0 million of shares of our common stock. In October 2020, we amended the 2020 Sales Agreement to reduce the aggregate offering amount thereunder from $75.0 million to $62.5 million. We have not sold any shares of our common stock under the 2020 Sales Agreement.
Our incurrence of debt was conducted entirely under the Hercules Loan Agreement, as amended, pursuant to which we borrowed $10.0 million of a maximum of $40.0 million. On December 15, 2020, we entered into a Payoff Letter with Hercules and paid a total of $10.8 million to Hercules in connection therewith, representing the outstanding principal, accrued and unpaid interest, fees, costs and expense due and owed to Hercules, thereby terminating the Hercules Loan Agreement and the related loan documents.
 
74

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Cash flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for each of the periods presented:
Year Ended
March 31,
2021
2020
(Amounts in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (61,389) $ (60,552)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
(188,776) (5,233)
Net cash provided by financing activities
372,462 100,166
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
721 (135)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$ 123,018 $ 34,246
Operating activities
During the year ended March 31, 2021, net cash used in operating activities was $61.4 million, primarily resulting from our net loss of $80.9 million, partially offset by an increase in non-cash charges of $16.0 million, primarily consisting of stock-based compensation expense, and an increase in cash of $3.5 million related to changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Net cash used by our changes in our operating assets and liabilities for the twelve months ended March 31, 2021 consisted primarily of a $3.4 million increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities, a net $2.5 million increase in cash related to ASC 842 (including changes in operating lease liabilities, operating lease, right-of-use asset and financing lease right-of-use asset), a $1.7 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets, a $1.0 million decrease in accounts payable and a $0.3 million increase in research and development incentives receivable from the United Kingdom government due to the timing and amount of our qualifying expenditures. The changes in accounts payable were primarily due to the timing of vendor invoicing and payments.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, net cash used in operating activities was $60.6 million, primarily resulting from our net loss of $52.6 million and net cash used by changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $15.4 million, partially offset by non-cash charges of $7.5 million. Net cash used by changes in our operating assets and liabilities for the year ended March 31, 2020 consisted primarily of a $14.4 million net increase related to the adoption of ASC 842 (including changes in long-term prepaid rent operating lease liabilities, operating lease, right-of-use asset and financing lease, right-of-use-asset), a $3.8 million decrease in accounts payable and a $0.6 million increase in research and development incentives receivable from the United Kingdom government due to the timing and amount of our qualifying expenditures, partially offset by a $0.9 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and a $2.5 million increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The changes in accounts payable and accrued expenses were primarily due to the timing of vendor invoicing and payments. The decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets was primarily due to the recognition of prepaid amounts paid to vendors.
Investing activities
During the year ended March 31, 2021, net cash used in investing activities was $188.8 million, consisting of $392.4 million in purchases of available for sale securities which were primarily driven by the receipt of proceeds from two registered public offerings during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, as well as $2.4 million in purchases of property, plant and equipment, partially offset by $206.1 million in proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, net cash used in investing activities was $5.2 million, consisting of $149.7 million in purchases of available for sale securities which was primarily driven by the receipt of proceeds for a registered public offering during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, as well as $6.5 million in purchases of property, plant and equipment, partially offset by $151.0 million in proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments.
 
75

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Financing Activities
During the year ended March 31, 2021, net cash provided by financing activities was $372.5 million, consisting of $286.1 million from the issuance of common stock, $91.7 million from the issuance of pre-funded warrants to purchase common stock, $5.7 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options, partially offset by $10.0 million in debt payments under the Hercules Loan Agreement and $0.8 million of fees associated with the extinguishment of the obligations under the Hercules Loan Agreement.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, net cash provided by financing activities was $100.2 million, consisting of $57.5 million in net proceeds from the issuance of common stock and $28.2 million in proceeds from the issuance of pre-funded warrants to purchase common stock, $10.0 million in proceeds from the incurrence of long-term debt, $4.4 million in proceeds from the issuance of common stock through sales under our at-the-market offering program and $0.6 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options, partially offset by $0.4 million in payments of issuance costs and $0.1 million in principal payments of finance lease obligations.
Hercules Loan Agreement
On August 8, 2019 and as amended on June 1, 2020, we and certain of our affiliates entered into the Hercules Loan Agreement with Hercules, which provided for aggregate borrowings of up to $40 million in the form of term loans. We borrowed $10.0 million at closing under the Hercules Loan Agreement in August 2019 and subject to the achievement of certain milestones, had the ability to borrow the unused $30.0 million available in three separate $10.0 million advances between October 1, 2020 and December 15, 2020, July 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021, and July 1, 2021 and December 15, 2021, respectively.
On December 15, 2020, we entered into a Payoff Letter with respect to the Hercules Loan Agreement. Pursuant to the Payoff Letter, we paid a total of $10.8 million to Hercules, representing the outstanding principal, accrued and unpaid interest, fees, costs and expenses due and owed to Hercules under the Hercules Loan Agreement. Upon the execution of the Payoff Letter, in repayment of all of our outstanding obligations thereunder, the Hercules Loan Agreement and the related loan documents were terminated.
Borrowings under the Hercules Loan Agreement bore interest at a rate per annum equal to 8.75%. Under the Hercules Loan Agreement, we were required to make monthly interest-only payments through September 1, 2022. As of March 31, 2021, there was no amount outstanding under the Hercules Loan Agreement due and owing.
The Term Loan Facility with Hercules was secured by substantially all of our assets, excluding our intellectual property, and subject to certain exceptions and exclusions. All liens on our assets held by Hercules were released in connection with the execution of the Payoff Letter.
Funding requirements
Our plan of operation is to continue implementing our business strategy, continue research and development of RP1 and our other product candidates and continue to expand our research pipeline
and our internal research and development capabilities. We expect our expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance the preclinical activities and clinical trials of our product candidates and if and as we:

conduct our current and future clinical trials with RP1, RP2 and RP3;

further preclinical development of our platform;

operate our own in-house manufacturing facility;

seek to identify and develop additional product candidates;

seek marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any;

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;
 
76

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

until our planned manufacturing facility is fully validated, continued limited manufacturing by third parties for clinical development.

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

acquire or in-license other drugs and technologies; and

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our research and development programs, any future commercialization efforts and operations as a public company.
As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $476.3 million. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as of March 31, 2021, will enable us to fund our overall operations into the second half of 2024. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we expect.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of RP1 and other product candidates and programs, and because the extent to which we may enter into collaborations with third parties for development of our product candidates is unknown, we are unable to estimate the timing and amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenses associated with completing the research and development of our product candidates. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including those described in this section and above under “— Operating expenses — Research and development expenses.”
Developing novel biopharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval for any product candidates or generate revenue from the sale of any products for which we may obtain marketing approval. In addition, our product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of therapies that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if ever. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funds to achieve our business objectives.
Adequate additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of our equity or convertible debt securities, our shareholders’ interest may be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences and anti-dilution protections that could adversely affect the rights of our common stockholder. Additional debt or
preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring debt adversely impact our ability to conduct our business, and may require the issuance of warrants, which could potentially dilute your ownership interest.
If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technology, future revenue streams, research programs, or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce and/or terminate our product development programs or any future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
Contractual obligations and commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of March 31, 2021 and the effects that such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods:
Payments due by period
Total
Less than 1 year
1 to 3 years
4 to 5 years
More than 5 years
(Amounts in thousands)
Manufacturing commitments(1)
1,651 1,651
Lease Commitments
63,121 3,457 7,170 7,523 44,971
Total
64,772 5,108 7,170 7,523 44,971
 
77

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
(1)
Amounts in the table reflect commitments for costs associated with our external CMO, which we engaged to manufacture clinical trial materials.
We enter into contracts in the normal course of business with CROs, CMOs and other third parties for clinical trials and preclinical research studies and testing. Manufacturing and research commitments in the preceding table include agreements that are enforceable and legally binding on us and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. For obligations with cancellation provisions, the amounts included in the preceding table are limited to the non-cancelable portion of the agreement terms or the minimum cancellation fee.
Collaborations
BMS
In February  2018, we entered into a Clinical Trial Collaboration and Supply Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS. Pursuant to the agreement, BMS is providing to us, at no cost, nivolumab, its anti-PD-1 therapy, for use in combination with RP1 in our ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial. Under the agreement, we will sponsor, fund and conduct the clinical trial in accordance with an agreed-upon protocol. BMS granted us a non-exclusive, non-transferrable, royalty-free license (with a right to sublicense) under its intellectual property to use nivolumab in the clinical trial and has agreed to supply nivolumab, at no cost to us, for use in the clinical trial. Both parties will own the study data produced in the clinical trial, other than study data related solely to nivolumab, which will belong solely to BMS, or study data related solely to RP1, which will belong solely to us. In January 2020, this agreement was expanded to cover an additional cohort of 125 patients with anti-PD-1 failed melanoma.
Unless earlier terminated, the agreement will remain in effect until (i) the completion of the clinical trial, (ii) all related clinical trial data have been delivered to both parties and (iii) the completion of any statistical analyses and bioanalyses contemplated by the clinical trial protocol or any analysis otherwise agreed upon by the parties. The agreement may be terminated by either party (i) in the event of an uncured material breach by the other party, (ii) in the event the other party is insolvent or in bankruptcy proceedings or (iii) for safety reasons. Upon termination, the licenses granted to us to use nivolumab in the clinical trial will terminate. The agreement contains representations, warranties, undertakings and indemnities customary for a transaction of this nature.
In April  2019, we entered into a separate agreement with BMS on terms similar to the terms set forth in the agreement described above, pursuant to which BMS will provide, at no cost to us, nivolumab for use in our Phase 1 clinical trial of RP2 in combination with nivolumab.
Regeneron
In May  2018, we entered into a Master Clinical Trial Collaboration and Supply Agreement with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Regeneron. Pursuant to the agreement we agreed to undertake one or more clinical trials with Regeneron for the administration of our product candidates in combination with cemiplimab, an anti-PD-1 therapy developed by Regeneron, across multiple solid tumor types, the first of which is our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial testing RP1 in combination with cemiplimab versus cemiplimab alone in patients with CSCC. Each clinical trial will be conducted pursuant to an agreed study plan which, among other things, will identify the name of the sponsor and which party will manage the particular study, and include the protocol, the budget and a schedule of clinical obligations. The first study plan related to the Phase 2 clinical trial in CSCC has been agreed.
Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, each party granted the other party a non-exclusive license of their respective intellectual property and agreed to contribute the necessary resources needed to fulfill their respective obligations, in each case, under the terms of agreed study plans. Development costs of a particular clinical trial will be split equally. The agreement contains representations, warranties, undertakings and indemnities customary for a transaction of this nature. The agreement also contains certain time-based covenants that restrict us from entering into a third-party arrangement with respect to the use of our product
 
78

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
candidates in combination with an anti-PD-1 therapy and that restrict Regeneron from entering into a third-party arrangement with respect to the use of cemiplimab in combination with an HSV-1 virus, in each case, for the treatment of a tumor type that is the subject of a clinical trial to which the covenants apply. Unless otherwise mutually agreed in a future study plan, these covenants are only applicable to our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in CSCC, and expire upon the one-year anniversary of the commencement of the applicable study plan.
The agreement may be terminated by either party if (i) there is no active study plan for which a final study report has not been completed and the parties have not entered into a study plan for an additional clinical trial within a period of time after the delivery of the most recent final study report or (ii) in the event of a material breach.
Critical accounting policies and significant judgments and estimates
Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, costs and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
While our significant accounting policies are described in greater detail in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe that the following accounting policies are those most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Accrued research and development expenses
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our accrued research and development expenses. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual costs. The majority of our service providers invoice us in arrears for services performed, on a pre-determined schedule or when contractual milestones are met; however, some require advanced payments. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in the consolidated financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at that time. Examples of estimated accrued research and development expenses include fees paid to:

CROs in connection with performing research activities and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf;

CMOs in connection with the production of preclinical and clinical trial materials;

investigative sites or other service providers in connection with clinical trials;

vendors in connection with preclinical and clinical development activities; and

vendors related to product manufacturing and development and distribution of preclinical and clinical supplies.
We base our expenses related to preclinical studies and clinical trials on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to quotes and contracts with multiple CMOs and CROs that supply, conduct and manage preclinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. There may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the expense. Payments under some of these contracts depend on
 
79

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
factors such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from the estimate, we adjust the accrual or the amount of prepaid expenses accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, our understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have not been any material adjustments to our prior estimates of accrued research and development expenses.
Stock-based compensation
We issue stock-based awards to employees, directors, consultants and non-employees in the form of stock options and restricted stock units. We measure such stock-based awards in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation, which requires all stock-based awards to be recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss based on their fair value on the date of the grant and the related compensation expense for those awards is recognized over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. We have, to date, only issued stock-based awards with service-based vesting conditions and record the expense for these awards using the straight-line method. The fair value of each stock option grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires inputs based on certain subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility, the expected term of the option, the risk-free interest rate for a period that approximates the expected term of the option, and our expected dividend yield. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur. The fair value of each stock-based award is estimated on the date of grant based on the fair value of our common stock on that same date.
We classify stock-based compensation expense in our consolidated statements of operations in the same manner in which the award recipient’s payroll costs are classified or in which the award recipient’s service payments are classified.
Off-balance sheet arrangements
We did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements
Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting pronouncements that are applicable to our business and may potentially have an impact on our financial position and results of operations
Emerging growth company status
As an “emerging growth company,” the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 permits us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards when they are required to be adopted by public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Item 7A.
Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risks
Interest rate sensitivity
As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $476.3 million, which consisted of cash equivalents, U.S. Treasury securities and U.S. government agency securities. Interest
 
80

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
income is sensitive to changes in the general level of interest rates; however, due to the nature of these investments, an immediate 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our investment portfolio.
Foreign currency exchange risk
Our headquarters are located in the United States, where the majority of our general and administrative expenses are incurred in U.S. dollars. The majority of our research and development costs are incurred by our subsidiary in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, whose functional currency is the British pound. We are exposed to foreign exchange rate risk. During the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized net foreign currency transaction losses of $0.7 million and $16,000, respectively. These losses are primarily related to unrealized and realized foreign currency gains and losses as a result of transactions entered into by our United Kingdom subsidiary in currencies other than the British pound, primarily the euro. These foreign currency transaction losses were recorded as a component of other income (expense), net in our consolidated statements of operations. We believe that a 10% change in the exchange rate between the British pound and the euro would not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
As we continue to grow our business, our results of operations and cash flows will be subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, which could adversely impact our results of operations. To date, we have not entered into any foreign currency hedging contracts to mitigate our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk.
Item 8.
Financial statements and supplementary data
See the consolidated financial statements filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as listed under Item 15 below.
Item 9.
Changes in and disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosures
None.
Item 9A.
Controls and procedures
Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures
The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, refers to controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to a company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2021. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at a reasonable assurance level as of March 31, 2021.
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the disclosure controls and procedures are met. Additionally, in designing disclosure controls and procedures, our management necessarily was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible disclosure controls and procedures. The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions,
 
81

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
or the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:
(i)
pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;
(ii)
provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and
(iii)
provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management of the Company has assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2021. In making its assessment of internal control over financial reporting, management used the criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of March 31, 2021.
This annual report does not include an audit report of the Company’s registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Management’s report was not subject to audit by the Company’s registered public accounting firm pursuant to rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission that permit the Company to provide only management’s report in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Remediation of previously reported material weaknesses
As previously reported in Item 9A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, management identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Since identifying the material weaknesses, our management, with the oversight of the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors, engaged in efforts to remediate the material weaknesses identified. During the quarter ended March 31, 2021, our management completed testing of the remediation activities and determined that the newly implemented controls were operating effectively and have been operating effectively for a sufficient period to conclude that the previously identified material weaknesses have been remediated.
Changes in internal control over financial reporting
There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
82

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART III
Item 10.
Directors, executive officers and corporate governance
The text of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which applies to our directors and employees (including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, and principal accounting officer or controller, and persons performing similar functions), is posted in the “Corporate Governance” section of our website, www.replimune.com. A copy of the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics can be obtained free of charge on our website. We intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and Nasdaq. The information contained on our website is not considered part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other filing that we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The remaining information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
Item 11.
Executive compensation
The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange commission not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
Item 12.
Security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management and related stockholder matters
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans
The following table provides information as of March 31, 2021, regarding our common stock that may be issued under (1) the 2017 Equity Compensation Plan, or the 2017 Plan; (2) the 2018 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan, or the 2018 Plan; or (3) the Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP.
Number of Securities to be
Issued Upon Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights
Weighted-Average Exercise
Price of Outstanding
Options, Warrants and
Rights
Number of Securities
Available for Future
Issuance Under Equity
Compensation Plans
Plan Category:
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders
2017 Plan
1,611,893 2.94
2018 Plan(1)
4,864,266 16.68 1,282,506
ESPP
1,031,868
Total
6,476,159 2,314,374
(1)
Includes 15,975 shares of common stock subject to outstanding restricted stock units.
(2)
Does not include restriced stock units.
The remaining information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange commission not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
Item 13.
Certain relationships and related transactions, and director independence
The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange commission not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
 
83

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Item 14.
Principal accountant fees and services
The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange commission not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
 
84

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART IV
Item 15.
Exhibits and financial statement schedules
(a)
1.
Consolidated financial statements.
For a list of the consolidated financial statements included herein, see Index on page F-1 of this report.
2.
Financial statement schedules.
All required information is included in the financial statements or notes thereto.
3.
List of exhibits.
The documents listed in the exhibit index immediately preceding the signature page of this Annual Report on Form 10-K are incorporated by reference or are filed or furnished with this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in each case as indicated therein.
Item 16.
10-K summary
None.
 
85

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
Financial Statements
For the Years Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
Page
F-2
F-3
F-4
F-5
F-6
F-7
F-8
 
 
F-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Replimune Group, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Replimune Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of March 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of operations, of comprehensive loss, of stockholders’ equity and of cash flows for the years then ended, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Boston, Massachusetts
May 20, 2021
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2018.
 
F-2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
REPLIMUNE GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 182,518 $ 59,500
Short-term investments
293,784 109,055
Research and development incentives receivable
2,953 2,962
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
4,492 2,734
Total current assets
483,747 174,251
Property, plant and equipment, net
7,442 6,860
Restricted cash
1,636 1,636
Right-to-use asset – operating leases
5,751 4,425
Right-to-use asset – financing leases
44,522 46,925
Total assets
$ 543,098 $ 234,097
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable
$ 2,355 $ 3,434
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
8,735 5,156
Operating lease liabilities, current
970 873
Financing lease liabilities, current
2,487 2,411
Total current liabilities
14,547 11,874
Long term debt, net of debt discount
9,801
Operating lease liabilities, non-current
5,078 3,737
Financing lease liabilities, non-current
24,745 24,967
Total liabilities
44,370 50,379
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders’ equity
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 150,000,000 shares authorized as of
March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020; 46,566,481 and 36,668,743 shares issued
and outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively
47 37
Additional paid-in capital
692,243 296,961
Accumulated deficit
(193,168) (112,298)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(394) (982)
Total stockholders’ equity
498,728 183,718
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$ 543,098 $ 234,097